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is the study of the transformations that matter is able to undergo, together with the energy changes associated with these changes.


anything that takes up space and has mass

Gas, Liquid, & Solid

Matter exist in three states


A state of matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume


matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape


matter that does not have a definite shape or volume


physical changes in that it is made up of two or more substances that are combined physically, homogeneous and heterogeneous


mixture of two or more substances, in which you can not see distinguishable parts in the mixture.


mixture of two or more substances, in which you can see distinct parts in the mixture.


another name for homogeneous mixtures

Pure Substance

Matter that has the same chemical composition throughout and cannot be separated into its parts by physical means.


a process used to separate dissolved solids from a liquid, which is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed into a liquid


a process that separates materials based on the size of their particles


A technique that is used to separate the components of a mixture based on the tendency of each component to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material.

Intensive properties

do not depend on the amount of matter present

Extensive properties

depend on the amount of matter that is present


something that is highly reproducible.


something that is close to the actual, correct value of the quantity being measured.


a type of error: the measurement has an equal probability of being high or low


a type of error: the measurement is consistently off in the same direction always too high or too low.

K=Celsius + 273.15

Celsius to Kalvin Equation

C=Kalvin - 273.15

Kalvin to Celsius Equation

(F-32)x (5/9)=C

Fahrenheit to Celsius Equation

C x (9/5) +32=F

Celsius to Fahrenheit Equation


Density Equation... 217g of Silver and a volume of 19.2cm3

Specific Gravity

Density of a object... <1 = Floats ; >1 = Sinks


the capacity to do work or to produce heat


Energy due to motion

Potential or Kinetic

What two things are energy classified?


Energy seen in our daily lives as gravitational energy

Gravitational potential energy

mgh... g=9.8m/s2. m is the mass of the object in kg, and h is the height in meters.

Kinetic Energy

1/2mv2... where m is the mass of the object in kg, and v is its velocity in m/s

5.6 kg x 9.8 m/sec2 x 6.1m =335J

Bowling Ball weighs 5.6kg, falling 6.1m out a window. what is its energy in J?


Transfer of energy between two objects due to a temperature difference.


describes a process in which heat is absorbed from the environment


a description of a change in which a system releases energy to its surroundings

Specific Heat Capacity

the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one degree celcius


amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius


J = (g)(c)(ΔT)..... g= mass; c= specific heat capacity (J/g-°C); ΔT= the change in temperature. what the water change was.

Physical Change

a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties

Chemical Change

a change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties


liquid to gas


gas to liquid


Solid to Liquid


liquid to solid


solid to gas


gas to solid


Total Disorder; Has much empty space, particles have complete freedom of motion, particles are far apart.


Disorder: partilces or clusters of particles are free to move relative to the other particles, particles are close together.


Ordered arrangement; particles are essentially in fixed positions; particles are close together.

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