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50 terms

Chemistry ~ DMACC

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Chemistry
is the study of the transformations that matter is able to undergo, together with the energy changes associated with these changes.
Matter
anything that takes up space and has mass
Gas, Liquid, & Solid
Matter exist in three states
Solid
A state of matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume
Liquid
matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape
Gas
matter that does not have a definite shape or volume
Mixtures
physical changes in that it is made up of two or more substances that are combined physically, homogeneous and heterogeneous
Homogeneous
mixture of two or more substances, in which you can not see distinguishable parts in the mixture.
Heterogeneous
mixture of two or more substances, in which you can see distinct parts in the mixture.
Solutions
another name for homogeneous mixtures
Pure Substance
Matter that has the same chemical composition throughout and cannot be separated into its parts by physical means.
Distillation
a process used to separate dissolved solids from a liquid, which is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed into a liquid
Filtration
a process that separates materials based on the size of their particles
Chromatography
A technique that is used to separate the components of a mixture based on the tendency of each component to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material.
Intensive properties
do not depend on the amount of matter present
Extensive properties
depend on the amount of matter that is present
Precise
something that is highly reproducible.
Accurate
something that is close to the actual, correct value of the quantity being measured.
Random
a type of error: the measurement has an equal probability of being high or low
Systematic
a type of error: the measurement is consistently off in the same direction always too high or too low.
K=Celsius + 273.15
Celsius to Kalvin Equation
C=Kalvin - 273.15
Kalvin to Celsius Equation
(F-32)x (5/9)=C
Fahrenheit to Celsius Equation
C x (9/5) +32=F
Celsius to Fahrenheit Equation
Density=Mass/Volume
Density Equation... 217g of Silver and a volume of 19.2cm3
Specific Gravity
Density of a object... <1 = Floats ; >1 = Sinks
Energy
the capacity to do work or to produce heat
Kinetic
Energy due to motion
Potential or Kinetic
What two things are energy classified?
Potential
Energy seen in our daily lives as gravitational energy
Gravitational potential energy
mgh... g=9.8m/s2. m is the mass of the object in kg, and h is the height in meters.
Kinetic Energy
1/2mv2... where m is the mass of the object in kg, and v is its velocity in m/s
5.6 kg x 9.8 m/sec2 x 6.1m =335J
Bowling Ball weighs 5.6kg, falling 6.1m out a window. what is its energy in J?
Heat
Transfer of energy between two objects due to a temperature difference.
Endothermic
describes a process in which heat is absorbed from the environment
Exothermic
a description of a change in which a system releases energy to its surroundings
Specific Heat Capacity
the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one degree celcius
calorie
amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius
q=mcΔT
J = (g)(c)(ΔT)..... g= mass; c= specific heat capacity (J/g-°C); ΔT= the change in temperature. what the water change was.
Physical Change
a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties
Chemical Change
a change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties
Vaporization
liquid to gas
Condensation
gas to liquid
Melting
Solid to Liquid
Freezing
liquid to solid
Sublimation
solid to gas
Deposition
gas to solid
Gas
Total Disorder; Has much empty space, particles have complete freedom of motion, particles are far apart.
Liquid
Disorder: partilces or clusters of particles are free to move relative to the other particles, particles are close together.
Solid
Ordered arrangement; particles are essentially in fixed positions; particles are close together.