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economy of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro

-mainly based around trade

cast system (varnas)

-rigid social class system that is still intact today
-order = Brahmans (priests and teachers), Kshatriyas (rulers and warriors), Vaishyas (merchants, skilled workers), Shudras (unskilled workers, service people), Untouchables (impoverished, looked down upon)


-the belief that someone is a soul
-aspect of Brahman


-(samsara) Hindus believe this, believe that the atman is released from the body and later reborn


-the result of the effects of his or her deeds during their lives, better deeds = reincarnated into a better life (vice versa)


-to achieve moksha you must fulfill one's dharma, "set a spiritual duties or obligations," based on one's class, allows one to have good karma and avoid suffering on earth and escape re-birth


-Hindus common goal: to escape from reincarnation to reunite fully with Brahman, releases people from the difficulties on Earth

Siddhartha Gautama

-founder of Buddism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha

Four Noble Truths

-the central teachings of Buddhism; to live is to suffer; suffering is caused by desire; the end of suffering can be achieved; the solution is the Eightfold Path

Eightfold Path/Middle Way

-how to achieve happiness; a life between earthly desires and extremes

Mughal Empire

-a period of Muslim rule of India from the 1500s to the 1700s


-the greatest of the Mughald Emperors. Second half of 1500s. Descendant of Timur. Consolidated power over northern India. Religiously tolerant. Patron of arts, including large mural paintings.

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