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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Chapter 20: The Industrial Revolution
Terms in this set (50)
liquid assets (usually cash) which can readily be moved from place to place and invested in new forms of enterprise
inventor of the power loom, which increased the production of cloth and precipitated the British industrial revolution
the first locomotive used on the first public railway line, invented by George Stephenson and in full operation by the 1830s
the first "world's fair", held in Kensington in 1851 to demonstrate the industrial might and superiority of Great Britain
the main German version of the joint-stock corporation, which used the savings of small investors to open new businesses
the human tragedy in Ireland when in 1845 the potato crop failed and over a million people starved
secretary of the British Poor Law Commission who headed a study of living conditions in urban slums
factory owners and utopian reformer who created cooperative rather than competitive working communities
skilled craftsmen of the British midlands who physically attacked the machines they felt were taking away their jobs
the British movement that petitioned Parliament in the 1840s to grant universal male suffrage and the elimination of property qualifications for Parliamentary membership
Site of the Great Exhibition
Site of Germany's rich coal resources
Lawyer who championed the cause of the urban poor
Inventor of the power weaving loom
Inventor of the Steam Engine
Advocate of rapid industrialization and the use of tariffs
Industrial joint-stock corporation of Vienna
His Rocket was the first locomotive used on a public railway line
Industrial joint-stock corporation of Paris
Cotton magnate and social reformer whose ideas contributed to the trade union movement
The Industrial Revolution in Britain was in large part inspired by
Entrepreneurs who sought and accepted new manufacturing methods and inventions
The British industrial entrepreneur Richard Arkwright invented the
water frame spinning machine
James Watt invented the steam engine as a way to
pump water from mines
The work ethic needed for efficient industrial production was taught as a religious virtue noticeably in the
Methodist meeting houses of the English midlands
In the 18th Century Britain's cotton industry
was responsible for creating the first modern factories
The importance of railroads to the Industrial Revolution lay in the way they
Led to British supremacy in civil and mechanical engineering
The factory system and the values on which it was based were
what regulated workers to lives of severe discipline and drudgery
The Great Exhibition of 1851
-showed how the Industrial Revolution had achieved human domination over nature
-Displayed Britain's industrial wealth and might to the world
-Was housed in the Crystal Palace, itself a tribute to British engineering skills
-Was the brainchild of Prince Albert
Industry on the continent differed from that in Britain because it
Used investments from joint-stock banks
The Industrial Revolution in the US
Employed large numbers of women in factories, especially in textile mills
American industrialists overcame the problem of the country's vast size by
Building roads, canals, and railroads
American factory owners invested heavily in machinery because
The American workforce was largely unskilled
In 1842 Edwin Chadwick published a landmark study of British
poverty and urged greater sanitation
The European population explosion of the 19th century was largely because of
the general disappearance of famine
Mine workers during the industrial revolution
Could be identified by their physical deformaties
European urban life during the early 19th century can be described as
Filthy sanitary conditions were exacerbated by the refusal of city authorities to take responsibility or action
The harsh treatment of children in the workplace during the Industrial Revolution
was not out of line with the brutal treatment of children in general
Before 1870 women's wages in textile mills were
Half or less that of men's wages
Physically attacked machines they believed adversely affected their livelihood
The "people's charter" demanded
-The right of all adult men to vote
-that members of Parliament be paid for their services
-the elimination of all property qualifications to run for office
-annual sessions of Parliament
Britain led the Industrial Revolution because it had deposits of _________________ and _________________, because it had abundant _________________, and because of its small _________________.
The cotton industry was pushed forward dramatically by the water frame spinning machine of Richard _________________ and the power loom of Edmund _________________.
Richard Trevithick pioneered the use of the steam-powered _________________, but George Stephenson's _________________ was the first used on a public line.
The Great Exhibition of 1851, held in the _________________ _________________ in _________________, demonstrated that _________________ led the world in industry.
Germany eventually played a major role in the industrial revolution because of _________________ deposits in the _________________ Valley of the _________________.
In Ireland, where _________________ peasants rented from absentee British _________________ landlords, a mid-century _________________ crop failure led to massive _________________.
As secretary for the _________________ _________________ Commission, Edwin Chadwick blamed urban diseases on _________________ impurities and called for reforms in _________________.
Children were extensively used in factories because of their small _________________, because they were easily _________________ to work, and because they were a _________________ supply of labor.
The People's Charter of 1838 demanded universal male suffrage for _________________, that Members of Parliament be _________________, and that Parliament meet _________________.
The Factory Acts passed between 1802 and 1819 limited child labor to _________________ hours a day, forbade hiring of children under _________________, and required that children be taught _________________ and _________________ during work hours.
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