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cell respiration

complex process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds

aerobic respiration

cell respiration in the presence of oxygen

1 glucose (aerobic respiration)

36-38 ATP

anaerobic respiration

cell respiration in the absence of oxygen

1 glucose (anaerobic respiration)


types of organisms based on O2 consumption

strict aerobes, strict anaerobes, facultated anaerobes

strict aerobes

die in the absence of oxygen (use aerobic respiration)

strict anaerobes

die in the presence of oxygen (use anaerobic respiration )

facultated anaerobes

can survive in the absence of oxygen, but will utilize aerobic respiration in the presence of oxygen

what is the biproduct of anaerobic respiration?


what is another name for cell respiration?

aerobic respiration

three stages of aerobic respiration

Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain


occurs in the cytoplasm. (only stage that doesn't include oxygen)

another name for Krebs Cycle

Citric Acid

Krebs Cycle

occurs inside the matrix of the mitochondria

Electron Transport Chain

occurs along the inner membrane of the mitochondria

equation for cell respiration

C6 H12 O6+ O2--------------> CO2+H2O


carries high energy electrons throughout the process.


low energy electron carrier

Energy output of glycolysis


products of Grooming Stage of Kreb's cycle

Acetyl CoA

Energy output of the Krebs Cycle (Grooming Stage)


Energy output of the Krebs Cycle


Overall energy output of Krebs cycle


Anaerobic Respiration

less efficient than aerobic. the creation of energy in the absence of oxygen

two steps of anaeriboc respiration

Glycolysis, fermentation

Which is the only step that doesn't require oxygen?



regenerates NADH to NAD+

2 types of fermentation

lactic acid fermentation
alcoholic fermentation

lactic acid fermentation

what we make, end product, produces lactic acid

who does lactic acid fermentation ?

bacteria and animals

alcoholic fermentation

ethanol is produced

who does alcoholic fermentation?



uses inorganic carbon (CO2) to create organic molecules


consumes organic carbon to create organic carbon compounds


use light energy to create organic compounds


obtains energy from chemical sources to create organic compounds

Types of organisms based on troph

Photoautotroph, photoheterotroph, chemoheterotroph, chemoautotroph


uses light energy and inorganic carbon (CO2) to create organic molecules

example of a photoautotroph



uses light energy and consumes organic carbon to create organic compounds

example of a photoheterotroph

venus flytrap


obtains energy and organic carbon from other organisms

example of a chemoheterotroph



obtain energy from chemicals, but can utilize inorganic carbons

example of a chemoautotroph

deep ocean dwelling bacteria


utilizing light energy to create organic compounds

general equation for photosynthesis

CO2+H2O-----------> C6 H12 O6+O2


site of photosynthesis

components of chloroplasts

outer membrane, inner membrane, stroma, thylakoids


when a protein falls apart and loses function. this typically occurs at higher temperatures and different pH's

stack of thylakoids


Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?

in the stroma

where do the Light Reactions occur?

in the thylakoids

2 steps of photosynthesis

Light Reactions
Calvin Cycle

properties of light

light travels in waves, light is inversely proportional


distance between different waves


how many light waves pass a given point in one second

inversely proportional

as one value goes up, the other goes down

electromagnetic radiation

all forms of energy created by the sun

light is.....


electromagnetic spectrum

includes all types of electromagnetic radiation

order of electromagnetic spectrum

gamma rays, x-rays, UV rays, visible light, infrared waves, microwaves, radiowaves

gamma rays

highest known level of electromagnetic (10 -4 nm)

what do gamma rays cause?

skin cancer


high frequency. (10 -3 to 1,000 nm)

how do you protect yourself from x-rays?

lead suit

UV rays

(300-900 nm)

how do you protect yourself from UV rays?

sun block

visible light

360-750 nm

infrared waves

800 to 10 6 nm


10 6- 10 9 nm (1 meter)



excited state

electron that is at a higher energy state than normal. any type of energy can do this.

ground state

lowest energy state of an electron

describe the electron/ground state process

electron absorbs light, goes to excited state. when energy is used up, electron goes back to ground state. light is given off again.


molecule that has a very loose hold on electrons

what is the purpose of the light reactions?

the purpose of the light reactions is to create energy to use in the next step of photosynthesis.


a protein with pigment molecules that are used to absorb light energy.

the three types of pigments

chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, carotenoids

chlorophyll A

can absorb 400-480 nm in light. then it picks up again from 600 nm to 700 nm.

chlorophyll B

380-500 nm, then it picks back up again at 610-625 nm


work best at low intensities of light. 380-550 nm

what replenishes electrons in the light reactions?


products of the Light Reactions

NADPH & ATP are products located in the stroma.

what are PII and PI?

proteins that absorb light and use them for light reactions

what do PII and PI do when light hits them?

they become excited

Calvin Cycle

-second stage of photosynthesis
-occurs within the stroma
-point of Calvin Cycle is carbon fixation
-makes sugars

carbon fixation

conversion of inorganic carbon into organic carbon molecules

products of Calvin Cycle

1 G3P


an enzyme with high affinity for carbon dioxide

three alternative pathways to carbon fixation

C3, C4, CAM


openings on leaves that allow the exchange of CO2 and O2

C3 pathway

carried out by plants in temperate areas

C4 pathwayy

at times of high heat, stomata will close limiting gas exchange. when stomata is closed, the organism has a buildup of O2 and low amounts of CO2.

what will C3 plants do in special cases?

incorporate O2 into the Calvin Cycle, making no food, and using up energy.

where does the Calvin Cycle occur in C3 plants?

in the mesophyll cells

PEP carboxylase

enzyme with a much higher affinity for CO2 than Rubisco

where does the Calvin Cycle occur in C4 plants?

bundle sheet cells

CAM Pathway

crussalacean acid metabolism

which plants undergo CAM pathway?

cacti, pineapple

Steps of CAM pathway

-during the day, stomata are closed, no gas exchange occurs. (light reactions--day, Calvin Cycle ---night)
-at night, stomata open, plants release O2 and take in CO2.
-CO2 that is taken in at night is incorporated into molecules that are then stored in the central vacuole.
-during the day, when stomata are closed, that carbon is released for use in the Calvin Cycle.


violet, green, yellow, orange, & red


400 nm


550 nm


600 nm


620 nm


700 nm

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