BIO Ch 11

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Terms in this set (...)

anther
a sac-like structure at the tip of the stamen in which pollen grains are produced
Anthophyta
the division to which angiosperms belong
apical meristem
the growing point in a vascular plant at the tip of a shoot or root where cell division occurs
basal angiosperms
a group of plants that probably branched off before the separation of monocots and eudicots
calyx
the whorl of sepals
carpel
the female reproductive part of a flower that consists of the stigma, style, and ovar
cone
the ovulate strobilus on gymnosperms that contains ovules
conifer
the dominant division of gymnosperms with the most variety of species
corolla
the collection of petals
cotyledon
the one (monocot) or two (dicot) primitive leaves present in a seed
cycad
a division of gymnosperms that grow in tropical climates and resemble palm trees
dicot
a group of angiosperms whose embryos possess two cotyledons; also known as eudicot
diplontic
describes a life cycle in which the diploid stage is the dominant stage
eudicots
a group of angiosperms whose embryos possess two cotyledons; also known as dicot
filament
the thin stalk that links the anther to the base of the flower
gametangium
the structure within which gametes are produced
gametophyte
the haploid plant that produces gametes
gingkophyte
a division of gymnosperm with one living species, the Gingko biloba, a tree with fan-shaped leaves
gnetophyte
a division of gymnosperms with varied morphological features that produce vessel elements in their woody tissues
gymnosperm
a seed plant with naked seeds (seeds exposed on modified leaves or in cones)
gynoecium
the group of structures that constitute the female reproductive organ; also called the pistil
haplodiplontic
describes a life cycle in which the haploid and diploid stages alternate; also known as an alternation of generations life cycle
haplontic
describes a life cycle in which the haploid stage is the dominant stage
herbaceous
describes a plant without woody tissue
heterosporous
having two kinds of spores that give rise to male and female gametophytes
homosporous
having one kind of spore that gives rise to gametophytes that give rise to both male and female gametes
megasporocyte
a megaspore mother cell; larger spore that germinates into a female gametophyte in a heterosporous plant
microsporocyte
smaller spore that produces a male gametophyte in a heterosporous plant
monocot
a related group of angiosperms that produce embryos with one cotyledon and pollen with a single ridge
nonvascular plant
a plant that lacks vascular tissue formed of specialized cells for the transport of water and nutrients
ovary
the chamber that contains and protects the ovule or female megasporangium
petal
a modified leaf interior to the sepal; colorful petals attract animal pollinator
pistil
the group of structures that constitute the female reproductive organ; also called the carpel
sepal
a modified leaf that encloses the bud; outermost structure of a flower
sporangium
the organ within which spores are produced
stamen
the group of structures that contain male reproductive organs
stigma
uppermost structure of the carpel where pollen is deposited
style
the long, thin structure that links the stigma to the ovary
syngamy
the union of two gametes in fertilization
vascular plant
a plan in which there is a network of cells that conduct water and solutes through the organism
b. when the sperm nucleus and egg nucleus fuse
At what stage does the diploid zygote form?

a. when the female cone begins to bud from the tree
b. when the sperm nucleus and the egg nucleus fuse
c. when the seeds drop from the tree
d. when the pollen tube begins to grow
Without megasporangium - egg

without microsporangium - pollen
If a flower lacked a megasporangium, why type of gamete would it not be able to form? If it lacked a microsporangium, what type of gamete would not form?
a. green algae
The land plants are probably descendants of which of these groups?

a. green algae
b. red algae
c. brown algae
d. angiosperms
c. fertilization
The event that leads from the haploid stage to the diploid stage in alternation of generations is _______.

a. meiosis
b. mitosis
c. fertilization
d. germination
a. haplontic plant
Moss is an example of which type of plant?

a. haplontic plant
b. vascular plant
c. diplontic plant
d. seed plant
a. the plants carry exposed seeds on modified leaves
Which of the following traits characterizes gymnosperms?

a. the plants carry exposed seeds on modified leaves
b. reproductive structures are located in a flower
c. after fertilization, the ovary thickens and forms a fruit
d. the gametophyte is longest phase of the life cycle
c. pollen
What adaptation do seed plants have in addition to the seed that is not found in seedless plants?

a. gametophytes
b. vascular tissue
c. pollen
d. chlorofyll
a, the anther
Pollen grains develop in which structure?

a. the anther
b. the stigma
c. the filament
d. the carpel
b. a monocot
Corn develops from a seedling with a single cotyledon, displays parallel veins on its leaves, and produces monosulcate pollen. It is most likely:

a. a gymnosperm
b. a monocot
c. a eudicot
d. a basal angiosperm
the sporangium of plants protects the spores from drying out. Apical meristems ensure that a plant is able to grow in the two directions required to acquire water and nutrients: up toward sunlight and down in soil. The multicellular embryo is an important adaptation that improves survival of the developing plant in dry environments. The development of molecules that gave plants structural strength allowed them to grow higher on land and obtain more sunlight. A waxy cuticle prevents water loss from aerial surfaces.
What adaptations do plants have that allow them to survive on land?
Coniferophtya, Cycadophyta, Gingkophyta, Gnetophyta
What are the four modern-day groups of gymnosperms?
The resemblance between cycads and palm trees is only superficial. Cycads are gymnosperms and do not bear flowers or fruit. Unlike palms, cycads produce cones; large, female cones that produce naked seeds, and smaller male cones on separate plants
Cycads are considered an endangered species and their trade is severely restricted. Customs officials stop suspected smugglers, who claim that the plants in their possession are palm trees and not cycads. How would a botanist distinguish between the two types of plants?
Angiospersms are successful because of flowers and fruit. these structures protect reproduction from variability in the environment
What are the two structures that allow angiosperms to be the dominant form of plant life in most terrestrial ecosystems?