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35 terms

Final Review: India

STUDY
PLAY
Khyber Pass
Gap in the Hindu Kush mountains in which invaders entered India
Himalayas
The highest mountains in the world, which stretch along northern India, separating it from China and rest of Asia
Hindu Kush
Mountain range extending west of the Himalayas
Monsoons
Seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons
Indus River
River in Pakistan that creates a fertile plain known as the Indus River Valley
Ganges River
Holiest of Rivers, lined with temples, very polluted
Indus Valley Civilization
Ancient worlds most populous civilization, located in Harrapa and Mohjeno-Daro modern day Pakistan, high level of urban planning, well organized govt, farming was basis of economy, well est. trade routes along indian ocean and Arabian Sea
Caste System
5: Brahmins- priests, Kyshatriyas- aristocrats, Vaisyas- free skilled workers, Sudras- slaves/unskilled labor, Untouchables/Dalit
Shiva
Destroyer God
Brahma
Creator God
Vishnu
Preserver God
Hinduism
Main religion of India, no founder or formal church, roots from Aryans, shapes and unifies much of India "way of life"
Vedas
Eternal truths revealed to wise men, forms of poems songs and prayers, Upanishads explained ideas
Reincarnation
Rebirth of the soul in various(temporary) forms
Karma
every deed, mental or physical, in this life affects a persons future life
Moksha
goal of life, liberation from Samsara, freeing of the soul from the body to unite with Brahman; one with Brahman
Dharma
fulfill life's duty
Kama
pleasure
Artha
wealth/power
Atman
allows you to be one with Brahman
Sikhism
the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam
Sepoy Rebellion
Indian troops in British army, gun cartridges greased with beef or pork fat, Results- Britain makes India a colony, Queen Victoria is empress of India, distrust between British and Indians
Effects of British Rule
Technology- improved roads, railroads and telegraphs, helped British keep control, Economic- British factories in India, less bought from Indians, Indians had to grow cash crops for expensive British products, Social- improved health care and sanitation, high caste Indians educated, taught about English language and culture(freedom and liberty)
East India Company
Lead by Robert Clive, British gain majority of trading rights, forced many Indian rulers to sign treaties
Amritsar Massacre
To protest the Rowlatt Act, Indians gathered in Amritsar, where British troops fired on the crowd killing several hundred. This sparked further protests
Mughal Empire
Founded by early Mongol leader Babur, early Mongols destroyed much of Hindu culture, Akbar(1556-1605) stressed tolerance; Accomplishments- Urdu, art, combo of Hindu and Muslim culture
Civil Disobedience
Disobeying unjust laws and accepting consequences
Imperialism India
East India Company controlled most of India, British were rulers of India, caused rise in India Nationalism
Mahatma Gandhi
political and spiritual leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for home rule; homespun movement, civil disobedience, salt march, satyagraha
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Gandhi, appealing to the poor
Nehru
1st prime minister of India
Jinnah
Governor General of Pakistan
Socialism
an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all
Indira Gandhi
elected prime minister after Nehru's death, assassinated by Sikh bodyguards
Modern Challenges India
overpopulation, discrimination, cultural diversity, Sikh violence,