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Khyber Pass

Gap in the Hindu Kush mountains in which invaders entered India


The highest mountains in the world, which stretch along northern India, separating it from China and rest of Asia

Hindu Kush

Mountain range extending west of the Himalayas


Seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons

Indus River

River in Pakistan that creates a fertile plain known as the Indus River Valley

Ganges River

Holiest of Rivers, lined with temples, very polluted

Indus Valley Civilization

Ancient worlds most populous civilization, located in Harrapa and Mohjeno-Daro modern day Pakistan, high level of urban planning, well organized govt, farming was basis of economy, well est. trade routes along indian ocean and Arabian Sea

Caste System

5: Brahmins- priests, Kyshatriyas- aristocrats, Vaisyas- free skilled workers, Sudras- slaves/unskilled labor, Untouchables/Dalit


Destroyer God


Creator God


Preserver God


Main religion of India, no founder or formal church, roots from Aryans, shapes and unifies much of India "way of life"


Eternal truths revealed to wise men, forms of poems songs and prayers, Upanishads explained ideas


Rebirth of the soul in various(temporary) forms


every deed, mental or physical, in this life affects a persons future life


goal of life, liberation from Samsara, freeing of the soul from the body to unite with Brahman; one with Brahman


fulfill life's duty






allows you to be one with Brahman


the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam

Sepoy Rebellion

Indian troops in British army, gun cartridges greased with beef or pork fat, Results- Britain makes India a colony, Queen Victoria is empress of India, distrust between British and Indians

Effects of British Rule

Technology- improved roads, railroads and telegraphs, helped British keep control, Economic- British factories in India, less bought from Indians, Indians had to grow cash crops for expensive British products, Social- improved health care and sanitation, high caste Indians educated, taught about English language and culture(freedom and liberty)

East India Company

Lead by Robert Clive, British gain majority of trading rights, forced many Indian rulers to sign treaties

Amritsar Massacre

To protest the Rowlatt Act, Indians gathered in Amritsar, where British troops fired on the crowd killing several hundred. This sparked further protests

Mughal Empire

Founded by early Mongol leader Babur, early Mongols destroyed much of Hindu culture, Akbar(1556-1605) stressed tolerance; Accomplishments- Urdu, art, combo of Hindu and Muslim culture

Civil Disobedience

Disobeying unjust laws and accepting consequences

Imperialism India

East India Company controlled most of India, British were rulers of India, caused rise in India Nationalism

Mahatma Gandhi

political and spiritual leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for home rule; homespun movement, civil disobedience, salt march, satyagraha

Indian National Congress

A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Gandhi, appealing to the poor


1st prime minister of India


Governor General of Pakistan


an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all

Indira Gandhi

elected prime minister after Nehru's death, assassinated by Sikh bodyguards

Modern Challenges India

overpopulation, discrimination, cultural diversity, Sikh violence,

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