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Lipids - (chapter 5)

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Lipids
contain more than twice the calories per gram (9 kcal) as proteins and carbohydrates. (163)
Lipids
should comprise 20% to 35% of adult's calorie intake. (163)
Cardiovascular disease
major killer disease in North America. (191)
Triglycerides
most common type of lipid found in the body and in foods. (165)
Lipids
include fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, sterols and cholesterols. (do not dissolve readily in water) (163)
Fatty acid
simplest form of lipids; long chain of carbons bonded with hydrogens. (165)
Phospholipids
class of lipid built on backbone of glycerol, fatty acid replaced with phosphorus or nitrogen. (166)
Lecithin
(example of phospholipid and emulsifier) participate in fat digestion in small intestine; contains a part that attracts and repels water. (166)
Cholesterol
(sterol) used to form certain hormones and bile acids and is incorporated in to cell structures. (Body can make all cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids it needs.) (167,186)
Saturated fat
Animal fats are the chief contibutors of saturated fatty acids to North American diet. (170)
Emulsifier
ability to keep mixture of lipids and water from separating. (phospholipids; monoglycerides, lechithin and bile acids) (170, 186)
Cholesterol
only found in animal foods. (170)
Fat replacement
5 types: water, starch derivatives, fibers, protein -derived, engineered fats (173)
Lipoproteins
vehicles for transport of lipids from the small intestine and liver to body tissues. (178)
Lipoproteins
4 groups: chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL (179)
Liver
takes up various lipids from the blood and is manufacturing site for lipids and cholesterol. (180)
LDL
transports cholesterol to tissues. (181)
HDL
donates the cholesterol primarily to other lipoproteins for transport back to the liver to be excreted.
Triglycerides
used for energy storage, insulation, and transportation of fat-soluble vitamins. (184)
Omega-3 acids
decreases blood clotting and inflammatory processes in body. (165,182)
Glycerol
3-carbon backbone in all triglycerides. (163)
Chylomicrons
arise from intestinal cells. (179)
Hydrogenation
increases shelf life, makes it harder, more saturated, reduces tendency for oxidative breakdown. (adds hydrogen to unsaturated fat, changing fat to trans fat) (174)
Cardiovascular disease
high blood LDL, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking. (191)
Bile acids
made from cholesterol. (186)
Fat intake
North American diet consists of 33% of calories of fat.
Heart attacks
typical signs are dizziness, sweating, and irregular heartbeat. (191)
Dietary cholesterol
has less effect on blood cholesterol than saturated fat.