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Chapter 14-World War I and Its Aftermath

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Hague Tribunal
a world court to settle disputes between nations
Pan-Slavism
nationalism, it held that all Slavic peoples sharea common nationality
Central Powers
German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria.
Allies
United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire
pacifism
opposition to all war
militarism
the glorification of the military
entente
a nonbiding agreement to follow common policies
Francis Ferdinand
archduke of Austria-hungaryvisited Sarajevo, was killed
Gavrilo Princip
he killed the archduke
Schlieffen Plan
Italy chose to remain neutral (neutrality - policy of supporting neither side in a war). Britain makes decision to support its ally France because of Germany war plans. General Alfred von Schlieffen planned to attack France. His plan was to avoid a two-front war against France (west) and Russia (east). He thought that Russia's army would be slow to mobilize. Under his plan, Germany first defeated France and then fought Russia. To ensure victory (west) his plan required German armies to march Belgium and swing south behind French lines. August 3 Germany invaded Belgium. Britain declared war on Germany, Britain and other European powers signed a treaty ensuring Belgium's neutrality.
ultimatum
final set of demands
mobilize
prepare its military forces for war
neutrality
a policy supportingneither side in a war
Western Front
Battle of Marne pushed back German offensive and destroyed Germany's hopes for quick victory on the Western Front.Warring armies in the Western Front burrowed into vast system of trenches, stretching from Swiss frontier to English Channel.
Verdun
German forces overwhelm the French at Verdun. French defenders held firm, but 11-month struggle cost more than half-million causalities on both sides.
Somme
Allied offensive at Somme River was costly. In single grisly day, 60,000 British soldiers were killed or wounded, in five-month battle, one million soldiers were killed without either side winning an advantage.
Tannenberg
At battle of Tannenberg, Russians suffered one of the worst defeats of the wat causing them to retreat. After Tannenberg, armies in the east fought on Russian soil. Russia was the least industrialized of the great powers and was poorly equipped to fight a modern war. Troops sometimes lacked even rifles. Still, Russian commanders continued to throw masses of peasant soldiers into combat.
Caporetto
Austrians and Germans launched major offensive against the Italian position at Caporetto. The Italians retreated in disarray. Later, British and French forces helped stop Central Power's advance into Italy. Still Caporetto proved as disastrous for Italy as Tannenberg had been for Russia.
Gallipoli
Turkish troops tied down the trapped Allies on beaches.
T.E. Lawrence
The British sent Colonel T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) to support Arab revolt. Lawrence led guerilla raids against Turks, dynamiting bridges and supply trains. Ottoman empire lost a great deal of territories to the Arabs, including the key city of Baghdad.
stakemate
a deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other
no man's land
empty tract, pocked with shell holes, every house and tree were destroyed
zeppelin
large gas-filled balloons
U-boat
German submarines
convoy
groups of merchant ships protected by warships
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Lenin signed the treaty with Germnythetreaty ended Russian participation in WW 1
Woodrow Wilson
president, insisted that Americans as citizens of a neutral country, had a right to safe travel on the seas
Lusitania
British boat that contained 128 Americans, bombarded by Germany
Fourteen Points
Wilson in his fourteen points wanted, self-determination
total war
the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort
conscription
"the draft", which required all young men to be ready for military or other service.
propaganda
is the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause
atrocity
horrible acts against innocent people
self-determination
the right of poeple to choose their own form of government
armistice
agreement to end fighting
David Lloyd George
British prime minister knew that his people wated harsh treatment for Germany
Georges Clemenceau
French leader, anti-German policy, goal was to weaken Germany do that it could never again threaten France
League of Nations
the league was based on collective security
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty said that Germany will take full responsability of the war and had to pay the reparations.
pandemic
is the spread of a disease across the entire country, continent or in this case the whole world
reparations
payments for war damage
collective security
a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all
mandate
territories administered by western powers