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24 terms

Biology: The Immune System and Diseases

Chapter 40 - The Immune System and Diseases
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disease
any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body
pathogen
disease-causing agents
germ theory of disease
conclusion that infectious diseases were caused by microorganisms of different types, commonly called germs
Koch's postulates
a series of rules that identify the microorganism that causes a specific disease
vector
animals that carry pathogens from person to person
antibiotic
compounds that kill bacteria without harming the cells of human or animal hosts
immunity
the process in which the infection is fought off through the production of cells that inactivate foreign substances or cells
inflammatory response
a nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection
fever
an elevated increase in body temperature
interferon
a group of proteins that helps the cell resist viral infection
immune response
specific defenses carried out by the immune system if a pathogen is able to get past the body's nonspecific defenses
antigen
a substance that triggers the immune response
humoral immunity
when B cells provide immunity against antigens and pathogens
cell-mediated immunity
when T cells provide a defense against abnormal cells abd pathogens inside living cells
antibody
proteins that recognize and bind to antigens
vaccination
the injection of a weakened form of a pathogen to produce immunity
active immunity
the type of immunity produced by the body's reaction to a vaccine
passive immunity
when antibodies produced by other animals against a pathogen are injected into the bloodstream
allergy
the most common overreactions of the immune system to antigens
histamine
chemical that increase the flow of blood and fluids to surrounding areas
asthma
a chronic respiratory disease in which the air passages become narrower than normal
risk factor
anything that increase the chance of disease or injury
tumor
when a single cell or a group of cells begin to grow and divide uncontrollably resulting in a mass of growing tissue
carcinogen
chemical compounds that are known to cause cancer