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Chapter 40 - The Immune System and Diseases


any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body


disease-causing agents

germ theory of disease

conclusion that infectious diseases were caused by microorganisms of different types, commonly called germs

Koch's postulates

a series of rules that identify the microorganism that causes a specific disease


animals that carry pathogens from person to person


compounds that kill bacteria without harming the cells of human or animal hosts


the process in which the infection is fought off through the production of cells that inactivate foreign substances or cells

inflammatory response

a nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection


an elevated increase in body temperature


a group of proteins that helps the cell resist viral infection

immune response

specific defenses carried out by the immune system if a pathogen is able to get past the body's nonspecific defenses


a substance that triggers the immune response

humoral immunity

when B cells provide immunity against antigens and pathogens

cell-mediated immunity

when T cells provide a defense against abnormal cells abd pathogens inside living cells


proteins that recognize and bind to antigens


the injection of a weakened form of a pathogen to produce immunity

active immunity

the type of immunity produced by the body's reaction to a vaccine

passive immunity

when antibodies produced by other animals against a pathogen are injected into the bloodstream


the most common overreactions of the immune system to antigens


chemical that increase the flow of blood and fluids to surrounding areas


a chronic respiratory disease in which the air passages become narrower than normal

risk factor

anything that increase the chance of disease or injury


when a single cell or a group of cells begin to grow and divide uncontrollably resulting in a mass of growing tissue


chemical compounds that are known to cause cancer

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