46 terms

Chapter 20 science

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Sublimation
The process in which a solid changes directly into a gas
Precipitation
Any form of moisture that falls to Earth's surface from clouds
Cloud
Collection of water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air
Dew point
The temperature at which condensation equals evaporation
Fog
A mass of water vapor that condenses near the surface of Earth
Condensation nucleus
A suspended particle that provides a surface for condensation
Latent heat
Energy that is absorbed or released by a substance during a phase change
Absolute humidity
The mass of water vapor contained in a given volume of air
Relative humidity
The ratio of actual water vapor content in the air to the amount of water vapor needed to reach saturation
Coalescence
Formation of a large droplet by the combination of small droplets
Cumulus clouds
A low altitude, billowy cloud
Condensation
The process by which water vapor changes into a liquid
Evaporation
The process in which fast-moving molecules escape from a liquid to form water vapor
Dew
The condensation that occurs when air becomes into contact with grass and cools
Absolute humidity
The mass of water vapor contained in a given volume of air
Psychrometer
An instrument that measures relative humidity with two identical thermometers
Equatorial oceans
Most evaporation comes from
Equals the rate of evaporation
The dew point is the temperature at which the rate condensation
Increase
If temperature stays the same and the air become more moist, the relative just will
Advection fog
Forms along coasts when warm, moist air moves across a cold surface
Cirrus clouds
Have the highest altitude of any cloud in the sky
Stratus clouds
Cover large areas of sky and often block out the sun
Cumulus clouds
Form at low altitudes with a top that resembles cotton balls
Radiation fog
Results from the nightly cooling of Earth
Between 2,000 & 6,000m
Where middle clouds form
Condensation nuclei
What must be present in order for clouds to form?
Advective cooling
The process in which temperature of an air mass decreases as the air mass moves over a cold surface
Lifting and cooling
Upslope fog forms through this
Condensation level
The base of the clouds marks the
Supercooling
Cools a substance without changing its state
Rain gauge
Measures rainfall amounts
Doppler radar
Measures precipitation intensity
Cloud seeding
Introduces condensation nuclei into a cloud
Hail
Precipitation in the form of lumps of ice
Between 0.5 and 5 mm
The diameter of a normal raindrop
Sleet
Forms of rain falls through a layer of freezing air near the ground
Snow
The most common form of solid precipitation
Frost
Forms when the dew point falls below the freezing temperature of water and water vapor turns directly to ice
Doppler radar
Meteorologists use ______
to find out how intense precipitation will be
Induce precipitation
The purpose of cloud seeding is to
Hail
Precipitation formed in cumulonimbus clouds when convection currents carry raindrops to high levels
Adiabatic cooling
The process in which the temperature of an air mass decreases as the air rises and expands
Mixing
Large cloud formations associated with storm systems form by
Solid, liquid, and gas
The three states of water
Transpiration
Plants release water into the atmosphere
Gas
Water vapor is a
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