Foramen magnum, axis, coccyx, and Posterior atlantooccipital membrane
The spinal dura mater attaches to what structures
Epidural fat and internal venous plexus
What separates the spinal dura mater from the ligamentum flavum
occiput to the shoulder
The cervical plexus cutaneous terminals conduct sensation from where to where
T11-L1 vertebral level or L1-S3 cord level
The Lumbosacral enlargement of the spinal cord is located at:
Superior cervical ganglion
Where are the postganglionic sympathetic neurons for the radiating muscles of the iris located?
contains the Postganglionic Parasympathetic neurons for both the Ciliary muscles of the lens, and the Circular muscles of the iris.
contains the postganglionic Parasympathetic neurons for the Lacrimal gland as well as Nasal and palatine glands
Sympathetic postganglionic fibers
fibers that innervating the Heart, they also travel along with C7, C8, and T1 spinal nerves to innervate the blood vessels along with Erector Pile muscles of corresponding regions
Pterygopalatine ganglion in pterygopalatine fossa
The postganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the Lacrimal nerve are located in:
The Inferior Salivatory Nucleus
where the Preganglionic Parasympathetic neurons of cranial nerve IX (Glossopharyngeal Nerve) are located. These neurons synapse with the Postganglionic neurons in Otic ganglion.
Dorsal motor nucleus in the medulla
is the location for the Preganglionic Parasympathetic neurons of cranial nerve X (Vagus Nerve).
Dorsal motor nucleus in the medulla
The fibers of these neurons travels with the Vagus to reach the postganglionic neurons located at their target areas which are the lungs, stomach, small intestines, and two segments of the large intestines.
Superior salivatory nucleus in the pons
the location for the Preganglionic Parasympathetic neurons of cranial nerve VII (Facial Nerve).
Superior salivatory nucleus in the pons
The fibers of these neurons travel through different nerves to reach the Postganglionic Parasympathetic neurons in Pterygopalatine and Submandibular Ganglions.
the location of the Preganglionic Parasympathetic neurons of cranial nerve III (Oculomotor Nerve).
The fibers of these neurons synapse with Postganglionic neurons in Ciliary Ganglion.
Postganglionic Sympathetic (Not Parasympathetic)
The Sweat Glands and Hair Follicles are innervated by the __ fibers.
all ventricles and the subarachnoid space
At any given moment, there is about 125 ml of cerebrospinal fluid located in:
dilation of the pupil, ptosis, lateral deviation of the eye, and Paralysis of ciliary muscles
characteristics of Oculomotor nerve lesion
is among those autonomic ganglia
that are not located on either side of the vertebral column or in front of it. This Parasympathetic ganglion is located in the infratemporal fossa on the medial side of Mandibular division of the Trigeminal nerve.
superior cervical ganglion, celiac ganglion, superior mesenteric ganglion, and stellate ganglion
autonomic ganglia are located either on both sides of the vertebral column or just in front of it
spinal cord, edinger-Westphal nucleus, Facial nucleus and visual cortex
Vertebral arteries and their union in front of the Pons, the Basilar artery, along with their branches supply all the following neuronal structures
L4 - S3 and L4 - S2
The anterior divisions of ---------- and posterior divisions of --------- together form the largest nerve, "Sciatic", in the body.
The Fasciculus that communicates between adjacent spinal segments is called
Fasciculus Gracilis, Fasciculus Cuneatus, Anterior & Posterior Spinocerebellar Tracts/Fasciculi, Medial lemniscus and more
The Fasciculi that conduct proprioception from muscles and joints are several in number, and at each location have different names: such as?
The Fasciculi that is located all around the gray matter of the Spinal Cord
__ are the axons of the Lower
Motor Neurons located in lamina IX in ventral horn of the Spinal Gray Matter.
The cutaneous branches of .......... nerve conducts sensation from the medial 1/3 aspect of the hand.
This nerve as indicated from its name, conducts sensation from the upper lateral aspect of the arm.
has three known cutaneous nerves. 1st is the Inferior Lateral Brachial Cutaneous Nerve, that conduct sensation from the lower aspect of the Arm. 2nd is the Posterior Antebrachial cutaneous Nerve that conducts sensation from the dorsal aspect of the forearm. 3rd is the Superficial Radial Nerve, that conducts sensation from the dorsal 2/3 of the Hand and the Digits.
through its several cutaneous branches conducts sensation from the lateral 2/3 aspect of the palmar side of the Hand and the Digits.
has its terminal as the Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerve that conducts sensation from the lateral half of the forearm.
extends between the body of the Axis and the occiput, and there is No IV disc neither between the Atlas and the Axis nor between the Atlas and the Occiput
The ------------ligament extends between the occipital condyles and the dens of the axis.
This cross-shaped ligament is made of a horizontal part that extends between the inner aspects of the Lateral Masses of the Atlas (Transverse Ligament). And a vertical part that extends between the body of the Axis and the anterior aspect of the Foramen Magnum (Inferior and Superior Longitudinal Bands).
Accessory tectorial ligament
This ligament extends between the body of the Axis and the inner aspect of the Lateral Masses of the Atlas
1) referring the IV disc to the vertebra above
2) referring the IV disc to both vertebrae, the one above and the one below
two criteria for naming the IV discs
Dermatome that extends as a narrow strip from the medial aspect of the Gluteal region to the dorsolateral aspect of the Foot.
Dermatome is at the anteromedial aspect of the Leg from the Knee down to the medial 1/3 aspect of the Foot.
Dermatome is a narrow strip extends from the dorsolateral
aspect of the Gluteal region to the inferomedial aspect of the Thigh.
the obliquus capitis inferior, obliquus capitis superior and the rectus capitis posterior major muscles
The boundaries of the suboccipital triangle are formed by
The __ artery emerges from the transverse foramen of the atlas, and winds medially, deep within the suboccipital triangle
the Greater Occipital Nerve passes through the __ to reach the scalp for cutaneous innervation however, it does not innervate this muscle.
rectus capitis posterior minor
Of the four suboccipital muscles, the __ inserts most medially on the skull
obliquus capitis inferior muscle
The __ arises from the spinous process of C2 and inserts on the transverse process of the atlas
The peripheral aspect of the __ is tightly attached to the Epiphyseal rings and periosteum of the vertebral bodies via Sharpey's fibers.
Since the CSF is located in the __ space besides the ventricles, therefore, in Subdural hemorrhage, the CSF is not going to have RBC's in it.
innervates muscles of the forearm that are used to release the grabbed objects by the digits.
innervates the majority of (14 of total 19) muscles of the hand, however, its role in holding a pencil between the thumb and the index & middle fingers is very minimal.
does not reach the hand at all, therefore, it has no role in writing. It does however, innervates the three muscles of the anterior compartment of the Arm that are used in flexing the arm at Shoulder joint and flexing & Supinating the Forearm at the Elbow joint.
C5 & C6
Nerves that have their origin from ............... spinal segments innervate the majority of shoulder girdle muscles.
Dorsal Primary Rami
Transversospinalis, Interspinalis, Spinotransversalis, and Sacrospinalis is innervated by:
The Uncovertebral joints (joints of Louchka) are formed between the uncinate processes of lower vertebra and the uncinate fossa of the upper vertebra. They are located on both sides of Cervical Vertebral bodies of __.
Aqueduct of Sylvius
The interventricular opening between the third and fourth ventricles of the brain is known as:
The Aperture or Foramen of
__ are two foramens located midway on each side of the 4th ventricle. These two foramen along with foramen of Magendie conduct CSF from the 4th ventricle to the Subarachnoid spaces and Cisternae around the Brain and Spinal Cord.
Foramen of Magendie
This single foramen is located at the
caudal end of the 4th ventricle, at the mid line underneath the Cerebellum.
Along with above two foramen of Luschka, conducts CSF from the 4th ventricle to the Subarachnoid spaces and Cisternae around the Brain and Spinal Cord.
Lateral horn of upper thoracic and medulla oblongata
It is very well known that the Heart is regulated by the Autonomic Nervous System. The preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons that regulate the cardiac muscles are respectively located in:
In the __ region, Vertebral artery
Is located between the occiput and dorsal arch of the atlas.
vertebral artery in the suboccipital region winds behind the __ joint, however it would then pass through the Atlanto-occipital membrane to get into the cranial cavity but Not through the Atlanto-axial membrane.
Neuroectoderm, neural plate, neural groove and folds, neural tube and neural crest.
correct order of neurulation during the embryonic period
Some of the terminal nerves of __ innervate the muscles of the Anterior & medial thigh compartments. And some others are cutaneous for the skin of the Thigh (lateral to medial aspect of it), and the skin of the anteromedial aspect of the Leg as well as the dorsomedial aspect of the Foot.
Spina bifida with meningomyelocele
In this type of spina bifida you would find a dorsally protruded sac with elements of the spinal cord are incorporated in it.
Spina bifida with meningocele
dorsally protruded cyst-like sac (meningocele), however, neuronal elements are not incorporated in the wall of the sac.
Spina bifida with myeloschisis
In this case of Vertebral and CNS congenital abnormality, the neural tube for some reasons fails to fuse and remains open to the environment at the defected vertebral site.
Spina bifida occulta
In this type of abnormality, only the posterior aspect of the neural arch fails to fuse, with usually no neurologic symptoms.
great auricular, subcostal, genitofemoral, tibial
following nerves contain a mix of both somatic and autonomic nerve fiber components