143 terms

Final Exam

best treatment for most injuries: Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
Heat Exhaustion
caused by dehydration; symptoms include dry mouth, thirst, loss of coordination, dizziness, clammy skin, headache
Heat stroke
life threatening; body temp may rise over 104; skin appears red and dry, symptoms may include chills, nausea, dizziness, confusion, seizures; temp must be brought down to 102 within one hour
Exercise Prescription
recommendation for course of activity to meet fitness goals; includes duration, intensity and frequency
Heat Cramps
muscle twitching or cramping following heavy exercise; may be legs, arms or abs
rate of performing work; energy output per unit of time
study of the principles of mechanics and anatomy in relation to human movement
shin splints
pain in front of lower leg from inflammation of muscle and tendon; caused by overuse
stretching or tearing of ligaments
First Degree Sprain
stretching of the ligament
Second Degree Sprain
partial tearing of the unit
Third degree Sprain
complete disruption of the unit
Stress Fracture
partial or complete fracture of bone due to continual, rhythmic, nonviolent stresses
inflammation of tendon
Time (duration)
time spent in single exercise session
Factors affecting effectiveness of exercise
Duration (time), Frequency, Intensity
state of health more positive than mere absence of disease
complete exercise session; consists of warmup, intense aerobic or strength exercise, cooldown
Health Related Fitness Areas
Cardiovascular Endurance, Flexibility, Body Comp, Muscle Strength and endurance
Less Energy Demanding Exercise
longer timeline to achieve fitness goal, but less chance for injury
Cross training
tries to combine exercise activity at various intensities involving different fitness components
3 step program
identify goals (short and long-term); select activities you like; determine commitment level
loss of body heat; to avoid, do not exercise when wind chill factor drops below -20; dress in layers; warm inhaled air with scarf or mask
Exercising in hot weather
hydrate; reduce intensity; avoid temps above 85; dress appropriately; rest and recover
Benefits of flexibility
increased mobility; less back pain; greater success in skill-related activities (golf, tennis)
#1 killer in US
coronary heart disease
3 C's
Challenge, Control, Commitment
alteration in rhythm of the heartbeat either in time or force
abnormally high blood pressure
Digestive system disorders from stress
ulcers, colities, constipation, diarrhea
General Adaptation Syndrome (H. Selye)
process which occurs when body reacts to stressors; stages are alarm, resistance and exhaustion
Alarm (fight or flight response)
physiological response when we confront threat, try to escape from or try to recover from it; sympathetic nervous system releases stress hormones from adrenal glands
adrenaline-like chemicals released during alarm; sometimes kill heart cells
follows alarm; if stressor persists for more than a brief time
Higher Metabolic Rate
nervous, sweaty, shaky
Lower metabolic rate
easily tired, cold, overweight
Ways body reacts in fight or flight
heart pumps faster; breathing quickens; stored sugars/fats released to bloodstream; muscles tense; digestion slows; perspiration increases; pupils dilate; sense of smell and hearing intensify; blood vessels constrict; blood pressure increases; adrenaline released
Test anxiety (ways to reduce)
study ahead of time; rest; arrive early; eat something nutritious; think positively
Three main techniques to manage stress
Avoid; Alter; Adapt
limit exposure to environmental stressors by planning or re-arranging environment
Change attitude toward stressor; try to view from a positive outlook
Develop coping mechanisms
Personality Traits Type A
hostile; competitive; hard-driving; unable to relax; easily angered; very time conscious
Body Language of Type A
Grimacing; Tightening of Facial Muscles; Gesturing w/clenched fist; using explosive speech; hurrying the pace; interrupting others
Type A personalities
two times greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Type B
Type B personalities
relaxed and easygoing; high self-esteem; centered; not as competitive
Type C
highly committed; have confidence in ability to do the work; in constant control of their actions; enjoy their work; in top physical condition
Type C
not at higher risk for heart disease than Type B's
Primary stressors
original stressor that triggers the stress response
Secondary stressors
illogical thoughts about the primary stressor that keeps the response alive after the initial event has passed
Benefits of exercise
antistress activity reduces anxiety, depression and hostility; lowers cholesterol; lowers hypertension; reduces risk of cancer; reduces muscle tension; increases self-esteem; boosts sex life
Stress management techniques
exercise; laughter; crying
Passive relaxation techniques to stress management
relaxation; deep breathing; meditation
active relaxation techniques to stress mgmt
systemative muscle relaxation; yoga and static stretching; tai chi; massage and therapeutic touch
Systemative Muscle Relaxation
Autogenic Training
stress mgmt technique; a form of self-suggestion where person can put themselves in state by concentrating on feelings of heaviness in the extremities (hypnosis?)
person learns to reliably influence physiological responses which either are 1) out of control, or 2) are easily regulated, but broken down due to disease or trauma
hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine produced by the adrenal glands during fight or flight
negative stress
positive stress
progressive relaxation
involves contraction and relaxation of muscle groups
general physical and psychological response to any real or perceived adverse stimulus that tends to disrupt the individual's homeostatis (well-being)
reaction of the organism to a stress-causing event
stress mangement
group of skills for dealing w/stresses without suffering psychological/physical disorders
skill-related fitness (aka motor ability or sports fitness)
include Agility, Balance, Coordination, Power, Speed, Reaction Time
Locomotor skills
Walking, Running, Hopping, Leaping, Sliding, Jumping, Skipping, Galloping
Ultimate goal of all play and work
Efficiency of movement (?)
Components of skill-related fitness
Agility; Balance; Coordination; Power; Reaction time; Speed
ability to change direction quickly with controlled movement, with no wasted movement or loss of balance
ability to maintain contol of equilibrium in variety of static positions and dynamic movements
ability of senses and body to function harmoniously to produce complex movements
ability to use strength to apply force quickly
Reaction time
ability to initiate action rapidly following a stimulus to move
ability to perform movement or cover a distance in a short period of time
Personal Safety for Swimming
learn to swim; never swim alone; avoid horseplay; "stop, look and listen' before entering water; respect the water; swim diagonally across current with its flow if caught in current; when cramping, roll to face-down position, lungs fully inflated, grasp cramped area, apply pressure firmly
Safe Bathing Places
bottom smooth, gently sloping; no rocks, stumps; absence of currents and whirlpools; lifesaving equipment nearby
Fastest Swimming Stroke
front freestyle
Breast Stroke
efficient means of movement but not fast
side stroke
type of resting stroke
elementary back stroke
one of easier to learn and master
reduces chances of becoming casualty
FIT Formula
Frequency, Intensity, Time
Muscle Types (3)
smooth; cardiac; skeletal
2 Types small muscle fibers in skeletal muscles
slow twitch; fast twitch
Slow Twitch
many capillaries; slow to fatigue, more blood supply; endurance activities
Fast twitch
fewer capillaries; larger, fatigue more easily; for short intense efforts
Muscle Strength
amount of force or weight a muscle can exert or resist for a brief period; generally measured by a single maximal contraction of a muscle (1RM)
Muscle Endurance
ability of muscles to sustain repeated contractions (reps) or keep muscles under tension for an extended period of time
Strength Training Principles
Progression, Overload, Progressive Resistance, Specificity
slow, gradual process; adapt to the load
adding more resistance than body normally receives
Progressive Resistance
adapting workout to breakup boredom and achieve goals
body will adapt to stress imposed on it in very specific manner
Non weight-bearing effects on the body
loss of muscle mass; loss of muscle strength (get weaker); increased body fat; decrease in bone density/development
3 types of contractions
Isotonic, Isometric, Isokinetic
muscle contraction against a constant resistance (creating movement); e.g. lifting a weight
muscle contraction against a resistance that moves a constant velocity through the entire range of motion (like a rowing machine)
muscle action in which muscle attempts to contract against a fixed limit (no muscle movement, like a wall squat)
Isotonic Contraction has 2 phases
Concentric; Eccentric
Concentric (pulling or pushing)
occurs when muscle length is shortened by the resistance (upward curl on bicep curl)
Eccentric (resisting or opposing)
occurs when muscle is lengthened under tension (downward movement of bicep curl)
Antagonistic (opposing) muscle groups
Biceps/Triceps; Chest/Upper Back; Stomach/Lower Back
muscle group which directly engages in action around a joint which has an antagonist,or muscle that provides an opposing action
muscle that can provide an opposing actin to the action of another around a joint
any movement toward the midline of the body
movement away from the center of the body
Weakest Point Principle
gaining maximum strength at weakest point of Range of Motion
involves a sudden eccentric stretching action of the muscles followed by a forceful concentric contraction of those same muscles
Muscle Strength Training Options
Reps, Sets, Resistance
number of times you repeat the lift without rest and with the same weight selection
groups of reps performed in a single attempt
given load or weight applied against a muscle during a specific exercise
Safety Considerations for Exercising
dont exercise alone; dont hold breath when lifting overhead; dont hyperventilate; keep hands dry; warm up
FIT formula for muscle strength
3 days/wk; 70% 1RM; 2-5 sets of 4-10 reps
FIT formula for muscle endurance
3+ days/wk; 40-60% 1RM; 2-4 sets of 20-40 reps
FIT formula for muscle hypertrophy
3+ days/wk; 70-85% 1 RM; 3-6 sets of 6-10 reps
FIT formula for muscle tone
3+ days/wk; 50-70% 1RM; 2-3 sets of 15-20 reps
Body Composition
how much of your body weight comes from fat mass and how much from lean mass (LBM); influenced by sex, age, diet, exercise
Lean Body Mass (LBM)
weight of the body, less the fat weight; consists of tissues other than body fat, e.g. muscle tissue, heart, liver, etc); LBM is primary determinant of body's basal metabolism rate; major influence on energy requirements and nutrient needs
body weight more than 20% over standard (men >25%; women>30%)
Obesity (35% adults are obese)
higher risk heart attack; high blood pressure common; narrowing of arteries;
3 Body types
endomorph, mesomorph, ectomorph
Endomorph (endo = within)
round build, gain weight easily; hourglass figure
Mesomorph (meso = middle)
muscular with low percentage of body fat
Ectomorph (ecto = outer,external)
typically tall and thin
new category; good musculature but higher percent of body fat
excess of fat weight
people with body wt. above 10% above standard height/weight tables; 65% Americans are overweight
Men 25%, women 30% over height/weight tables
Dominant Factor of Obesity
Body Mass Index (BMI)
calculated by dividing weight by height
Facts about Body Fat
75 BB fat cells; size of fat cells can be shrunk, but cells cannot be eliminated; fat cells increase in number w/obesity, age and inactivity; for every liter of oxygen consumed, 5 calories of fat are burned; burning 3500 calories + 1 lb weight loss
Creeping Obesity
most people will gain 1 lb/yr after age 25
3500 calories
# calories you need to burn for one pound weight loss
Essential fat
needed for normal physiological functions; about 3% total fat in men and 12% in women
Stored fat
stored in adipose tissue, subcutaneous tissue and between organs (visceral); men store fat around waist and women around hips and thighs
Factors influencing weight fluctuation
Resting metabolic rate (RMR); fat metabolizing enzyme activity; set point theory; fat cell number
energy expended while resting (also known as BMR); directly related to oxygen consumption; sedentary people have low RMR
Factors Affecting RMR
Age (after 20, RMR decreases 2-% per decade), Height (tall, thin people have higher RMR) , Gender (Men have 10-15% higher RMR), Dieting (RMR drops during fasting), Environmental Temps, Exercise
Energy Expenditure
60-70% ttl energy ouput is = rest; 20-30% = physical activity; 10% = digestion
Strategies for Weight Mgmt
combination of aerobic exercise and weight training most effective for reducing fat; to burn excess fat, lengthen workouts (1st 20 min of aerobic burns carbs; 2nd 20 minutes body burns fat stores)
LBM formula
body wt x body fat% = lbs of fat; to find lean body mass - body wt - lbs of fat = LBM
LBM formula
BW x BF% = # lbs fat; BW = # Fat = LBM