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best treatment for most injuries: Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation

Heat Exhaustion

caused by dehydration; symptoms include dry mouth, thirst, loss of coordination, dizziness, clammy skin, headache

Heat stroke

life threatening; body temp may rise over 104; skin appears red and dry, symptoms may include chills, nausea, dizziness, confusion, seizures; temp must be brought down to 102 within one hour

Exercise Prescription

recommendation for course of activity to meet fitness goals; includes duration, intensity and frequency

Heat Cramps

muscle twitching or cramping following heavy exercise; may be legs, arms or abs


rate of performing work; energy output per unit of time


study of the principles of mechanics and anatomy in relation to human movement

shin splints

pain in front of lower leg from inflammation of muscle and tendon; caused by overuse


stretching or tearing of ligaments

First Degree Sprain

stretching of the ligament

Second Degree Sprain

partial tearing of the unit

Third degree Sprain

complete disruption of the unit

Stress Fracture

partial or complete fracture of bone due to continual, rhythmic, nonviolent stresses


inflammation of tendon

Time (duration)

time spent in single exercise session

Factors affecting effectiveness of exercise

Duration (time), Frequency, Intensity


state of health more positive than mere absence of disease


complete exercise session; consists of warmup, intense aerobic or strength exercise, cooldown

Health Related Fitness Areas

Cardiovascular Endurance, Flexibility, Body Comp, Muscle Strength and endurance

Less Energy Demanding Exercise

longer timeline to achieve fitness goal, but less chance for injury

Cross training

tries to combine exercise activity at various intensities involving different fitness components

3 step program

identify goals (short and long-term); select activities you like; determine commitment level


loss of body heat; to avoid, do not exercise when wind chill factor drops below -20; dress in layers; warm inhaled air with scarf or mask

Exercising in hot weather

hydrate; reduce intensity; avoid temps above 85; dress appropriately; rest and recover

Benefits of flexibility

increased mobility; less back pain; greater success in skill-related activities (golf, tennis)

#1 killer in US

coronary heart disease

3 C's

Challenge, Control, Commitment


alteration in rhythm of the heartbeat either in time or force


abnormally high blood pressure

Digestive system disorders from stress

ulcers, colities, constipation, diarrhea

General Adaptation Syndrome (H. Selye)

process which occurs when body reacts to stressors; stages are alarm, resistance and exhaustion

Alarm (fight or flight response)

physiological response when we confront threat, try to escape from or try to recover from it; sympathetic nervous system releases stress hormones from adrenal glands


adrenaline-like chemicals released during alarm; sometimes kill heart cells


follows alarm; if stressor persists for more than a brief time

Higher Metabolic Rate

nervous, sweaty, shaky

Lower metabolic rate

easily tired, cold, overweight

Ways body reacts in fight or flight

heart pumps faster; breathing quickens; stored sugars/fats released to bloodstream; muscles tense; digestion slows; perspiration increases; pupils dilate; sense of smell and hearing intensify; blood vessels constrict; blood pressure increases; adrenaline released

Test anxiety (ways to reduce)

study ahead of time; rest; arrive early; eat something nutritious; think positively

Three main techniques to manage stress

Avoid; Alter; Adapt


limit exposure to environmental stressors by planning or re-arranging environment


Change attitude toward stressor; try to view from a positive outlook


Develop coping mechanisms

Personality Traits Type A

hostile; competitive; hard-driving; unable to relax; easily angered; very time conscious

Body Language of Type A

Grimacing; Tightening of Facial Muscles; Gesturing w/clenched fist; using explosive speech; hurrying the pace; interrupting others

Type A personalities

two times greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Type B

Type B personalities

relaxed and easygoing; high self-esteem; centered; not as competitive

Type C

highly committed; have confidence in ability to do the work; in constant control of their actions; enjoy their work; in top physical condition

Type C

not at higher risk for heart disease than Type B's

Primary stressors

original stressor that triggers the stress response

Secondary stressors

illogical thoughts about the primary stressor that keeps the response alive after the initial event has passed

Benefits of exercise

antistress activity reduces anxiety, depression and hostility; lowers cholesterol; lowers hypertension; reduces risk of cancer; reduces muscle tension; increases self-esteem; boosts sex life

Stress management techniques

exercise; laughter; crying

Passive relaxation techniques to stress management

relaxation; deep breathing; meditation

active relaxation techniques to stress mgmt

systemative muscle relaxation; yoga and static stretching; tai chi; massage and therapeutic touch

Systemative Muscle Relaxation


Autogenic Training

stress mgmt technique; a form of self-suggestion where person can put themselves in state by concentrating on feelings of heaviness in the extremities (hypnosis?)


person learns to reliably influence physiological responses which either are 1) out of control, or 2) are easily regulated, but broken down due to disease or trauma


hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine produced by the adrenal glands during fight or flight


negative stress


positive stress

progressive relaxation

involves contraction and relaxation of muscle groups


general physical and psychological response to any real or perceived adverse stimulus that tends to disrupt the individual's homeostatis (well-being)


reaction of the organism to a stress-causing event

stress mangement

group of skills for dealing w/stresses without suffering psychological/physical disorders

skill-related fitness (aka motor ability or sports fitness)

include Agility, Balance, Coordination, Power, Speed, Reaction Time

Locomotor skills

Walking, Running, Hopping, Leaping, Sliding, Jumping, Skipping, Galloping

Ultimate goal of all play and work

Efficiency of movement (?)

Components of skill-related fitness

Agility; Balance; Coordination; Power; Reaction time; Speed


ability to change direction quickly with controlled movement, with no wasted movement or loss of balance


ability to maintain contol of equilibrium in variety of static positions and dynamic movements


ability of senses and body to function harmoniously to produce complex movements


ability to use strength to apply force quickly

Reaction time

ability to initiate action rapidly following a stimulus to move


ability to perform movement or cover a distance in a short period of time

Personal Safety for Swimming

learn to swim; never swim alone; avoid horseplay; "stop, look and listen' before entering water; respect the water; swim diagonally across current with its flow if caught in current; when cramping, roll to face-down position, lungs fully inflated, grasp cramped area, apply pressure firmly

Safe Bathing Places

bottom smooth, gently sloping; no rocks, stumps; absence of currents and whirlpools; lifesaving equipment nearby

Fastest Swimming Stroke

front freestyle

Breast Stroke

efficient means of movement but not fast

side stroke

type of resting stroke

elementary back stroke

one of easier to learn and master


reduces chances of becoming casualty

FIT Formula

Frequency, Intensity, Time

Muscle Types (3)

smooth; cardiac; skeletal

2 Types small muscle fibers in skeletal muscles

slow twitch; fast twitch

Slow Twitch

many capillaries; slow to fatigue, more blood supply; endurance activities

Fast twitch

fewer capillaries; larger, fatigue more easily; for short intense efforts

Muscle Strength

amount of force or weight a muscle can exert or resist for a brief period; generally measured by a single maximal contraction of a muscle (1RM)

Muscle Endurance

ability of muscles to sustain repeated contractions (reps) or keep muscles under tension for an extended period of time

Strength Training Principles

Progression, Overload, Progressive Resistance, Specificity


slow, gradual process; adapt to the load


adding more resistance than body normally receives

Progressive Resistance

adapting workout to breakup boredom and achieve goals


body will adapt to stress imposed on it in very specific manner

Non weight-bearing effects on the body

loss of muscle mass; loss of muscle strength (get weaker); increased body fat; decrease in bone density/development

3 types of contractions

Isotonic, Isometric, Isokinetic


muscle contraction against a constant resistance (creating movement); e.g. lifting a weight


muscle contraction against a resistance that moves a constant velocity through the entire range of motion (like a rowing machine)


muscle action in which muscle attempts to contract against a fixed limit (no muscle movement, like a wall squat)

Isotonic Contraction has 2 phases

Concentric; Eccentric

Concentric (pulling or pushing)

occurs when muscle length is shortened by the resistance (upward curl on bicep curl)

Eccentric (resisting or opposing)

occurs when muscle is lengthened under tension (downward movement of bicep curl)

Antagonistic (opposing) muscle groups

Biceps/Triceps; Chest/Upper Back; Stomach/Lower Back


muscle group which directly engages in action around a joint which has an antagonist,or muscle that provides an opposing action


muscle that can provide an opposing actin to the action of another around a joint


any movement toward the midline of the body


movement away from the center of the body

Weakest Point Principle

gaining maximum strength at weakest point of Range of Motion


involves a sudden eccentric stretching action of the muscles followed by a forceful concentric contraction of those same muscles

Muscle Strength Training Options

Reps, Sets, Resistance


number of times you repeat the lift without rest and with the same weight selection


groups of reps performed in a single attempt


given load or weight applied against a muscle during a specific exercise

Safety Considerations for Exercising

dont exercise alone; dont hold breath when lifting overhead; dont hyperventilate; keep hands dry; warm up

FIT formula for muscle strength

3 days/wk; 70% 1RM; 2-5 sets of 4-10 reps

FIT formula for muscle endurance

3+ days/wk; 40-60% 1RM; 2-4 sets of 20-40 reps

FIT formula for muscle hypertrophy

3+ days/wk; 70-85% 1 RM; 3-6 sets of 6-10 reps

FIT formula for muscle tone

3+ days/wk; 50-70% 1RM; 2-3 sets of 15-20 reps

Body Composition

how much of your body weight comes from fat mass and how much from lean mass (LBM); influenced by sex, age, diet, exercise

Lean Body Mass (LBM)

weight of the body, less the fat weight; consists of tissues other than body fat, e.g. muscle tissue, heart, liver, etc); LBM is primary determinant of body's basal metabolism rate; major influence on energy requirements and nutrient needs


body weight more than 20% over standard (men >25%; women>30%)

Obesity (35% adults are obese)

higher risk heart attack; high blood pressure common; narrowing of arteries;

3 Body types

endomorph, mesomorph, ectomorph

Endomorph (endo = within)

round build, gain weight easily; hourglass figure

Mesomorph (meso = middle)

muscular with low percentage of body fat

Ectomorph (ecto = outer,external)

typically tall and thin


new category; good musculature but higher percent of body fat


excess of fat weight


people with body wt. above 10% above standard height/weight tables; 65% Americans are overweight


Men 25%, women 30% over height/weight tables

Dominant Factor of Obesity


Body Mass Index (BMI)

calculated by dividing weight by height

Facts about Body Fat

75 BB fat cells; size of fat cells can be shrunk, but cells cannot be eliminated; fat cells increase in number w/obesity, age and inactivity; for every liter of oxygen consumed, 5 calories of fat are burned; burning 3500 calories + 1 lb weight loss

Creeping Obesity

most people will gain 1 lb/yr after age 25

3500 calories

# calories you need to burn for one pound weight loss

Essential fat

needed for normal physiological functions; about 3% total fat in men and 12% in women

Stored fat

stored in adipose tissue, subcutaneous tissue and between organs (visceral); men store fat around waist and women around hips and thighs

Factors influencing weight fluctuation

Resting metabolic rate (RMR); fat metabolizing enzyme activity; set point theory; fat cell number


energy expended while resting (also known as BMR); directly related to oxygen consumption; sedentary people have low RMR

Factors Affecting RMR

Age (after 20, RMR decreases 2-% per decade), Height (tall, thin people have higher RMR) , Gender (Men have 10-15% higher RMR), Dieting (RMR drops during fasting), Environmental Temps, Exercise

Energy Expenditure

60-70% ttl energy ouput is = rest; 20-30% = physical activity; 10% = digestion

Strategies for Weight Mgmt

combination of aerobic exercise and weight training most effective for reducing fat; to burn excess fat, lengthen workouts (1st 20 min of aerobic burns carbs; 2nd 20 minutes body burns fat stores)

LBM formula

body wt x body fat% = lbs of fat; to find lean body mass - body wt - lbs of fat = LBM

LBM formula

BW x BF% = # lbs fat; BW = # Fat = LBM

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