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133 terms

Western Civ Final

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Gutenburg
Inventor of the printing press
Erasmus
Wrote as a proponent for religious tolerance, from the Netherlands
95 theses
Martin Luther's reforms for the catholic church. Nailed them to the door of all-saints church
Salvation by faith alone
Belief from Luther that faith would be the only determiner of your salvation
Bible authority
Luther thought that the bible was the final authority for christians, not the pope
Priesthood of all believers
Luther believed that anyone could become a priest
Diet of Worms
Martin Luther's trial. He was going to be arrested
Predestination
The calvinist belief that it was already decided whether or not you would go to heaven
Presbyterians
John Knox formed this group. Scottish calvanists
Huguenots
French Calvanists
Henry VIII
Broke up with the Church of England. He divorced Catharine of Eragon. Re-Married several times
Thomas More
Wrote Utopia and opposed the king as being the supreme leader of the church
Act of Supremacy
Piece of legislation granted to Henry VIII giving him power of the church of england
Anglicanism
the new church that arose as a result of Henry VIII
Ignatius Loyola
Founder of the Jesuits, wanted to promote catholic education and spread the word
Council of Trent
The catholic church examined the protestant ideals and decided how to act.
Index of Forbidden Books
Released by pope paul III to protect the catholic ideas.
St. Bartholomew's Day
Catholic attack targeted at the Huguenots in France
Edict of Nantes
In an attempt for civil unity, France allowed for more tolerance against the Huguenots after this meeting
Peace of Augsburg
Formall allowed princes to select between catholicism or lutheranism and any citizens that didn't wish to conform to this could move
30 years war
Originally started due to czech revolt put down by Fredrich II, became a conflict between the catholics and protestants in the HRE. Also between the French and the Hapsburgs.
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended the 30 years war
Hapsburgs
The dominating family in Europe in the 17th century
Capitalism
An economic system based on private ownership and means of production
Mercantilism
system in which mother country makes profit off of colonies, want to acquire as much gold/ natural resources as possible, more exports that import, etc
James I
believed in the divine right of kings, oversaw creation of the King James Bible, quarreled with parliament
James II
openly catholic, overthrown by william and mary
Charles I
son of James I, poor ruler, very unpopular, started civil war, was eventually beheaded
Charles II
king when monarchy was restored, moderate ruler, reigned during passage of habeas corpus act
Oliver Cromwell
ruler of England after civil war, general during the civil war, instated Puritan values
Glorious revolution
when James II lost his throne, no wars involved
Roundheads
those who supported Cromwell during the civil war
Cavaliers
those who supported the king during the civil war
New Model Army
Cromwell's army during the English Civil War
habeas corpus
a law that allowed every prisoner to have a trial, couldn't hold someone in jail indefinitely
English Bill of Rights
created major prohibitions on the monarch's power (see book)
John Locke
English enlightenment thinker. Believed that humans were innately good and free. His ideas were incorporated into the Declaration of Independence
Thomas Hobbes
Political philosopher. Wrote Leviathan. From England
Voltaire
Criticizes European government through humor and letter writing
Rousseau
Political philosopher during the French revolution. Wrote the social contract. "Men are born free but everywhere he is in chains"
Adam Smith
Released many theories on economics, including competition, supply and demand, free market economy, etc.
Salons
Places were women would gather to discuss current events.
Mary Geoffrin
Famous for leading discussions in Salons
Individual, Nature, Happiness, Reason, Liberty
5 ideas of the enlightenment
The old regime
Held onto the "old ways" in France. Their ideas clashed with the third estate
First Estate
This estate had members of the clergy
Second Estate
This estate had the nobles
Third Estate
This estate had the common people
Tennis court Oath
Members of the third estate were locked out of the estates general, so they made an agreement to stand strong until a fair constitution was passed
National Assembly
This is what later became of the third estate
Bastille
Political prison that was stormed and destroyed. This sparked the moderate phase of the revolution
Great fear
THe common people felt threatened. Sense of uncertainty spread across France. People banded into small militias
Declaration of the rights of man
A document passed by the national assembly
Legislative Assembly
This is what later became of the National assembly
Guillotine
A Killing machine used in the reign of terror
Jacobins
A radical political group, lead by Robspierre
Committee of Public Safety
A Committee formed by Robspierre
Thermidorian Reaction
Revolt against Robspierre
The Directory
5 man leading body, came to power after Robspierre
Concordat
Agreement between the church and state in France, signed by Napoleon
Continental system
Large scale embargo against british trade.
Napoleonic Code
Single set of laws that Napoleon instituted
Meritocracy
Idea that anyone could raise up in class, based on your merit. Classes not set in stone
100 Days
Time period when Napoleon was exiled
Louis XVI
Weak indecisive king. somewhat responsible for the french revolution
Marie Antoinette
Queen of France, from Austria, very extravagant and not liked by people
Abbe Sieyes
Speaker of the 3rd estate. Wrote "What is the Third Estate"
Nelson
British naval officer, beat Napoleon at Trafalgar
Marat
Fiery newspaper writer, encouraged violence in the revolution
Congress of Vienna
A meeting in an attempt to settle the damage Napoleon had done to Europe
Metternich
Leader of the congress of vienna, wanted subtle but effective change. Wanted monarchies for stability
Legitimacy
People who had been driven off thrones were restored of their thrones after Napoleon.
Realpolitik
A form of leadership in which battle is the "go to" tactic
Mazzini
Italian nationalist. Soul of Italian unification
Cavour
Brains of the Italian unification
Garibaldi
Fighter of Italian unification, leader of the red shirts
Bismark
Prussian leader. Unified Germany
Kaiser Wilhelm
King of Germany over Bismark
Blood and Iron
A political philosophy in which wars are fought and then the land is industrialized
Franco-Prussian War
Last war for German unification
Nietzsche
Philosopher. Most famous works discussed man vs. superman
John Stuart Mill
Focused on ends not the means, wanted to do good for the most people possible. Feminist
Imperialism
Expansion throughout the world.
Socialism
Economic form in which businesses are run by the state
Unions
Workers banded together in these groups in order to gain power
Triple entente
Alliance between France, Britain, and Russia in WWI
Franz Ferdinand
Austria-Hungary prince that got assasinated
Schlieffen Plan
A plan that the Germans would utilize if there was a threat of a war on both fronts
Battle of Marne (first)
The allies attacked a gap in the German lines just outside of Paris. The French fought so hard that the Germans were stopped short and a quick victory on the Western front would be impossible
Battle of Verdun
Battle where the French attacked the Germans. Heavy casualties
Battle of Somme
French and English agains the Germans. Both sides bogged down. Over 1 million casualties at the end
Elan
The french attitude of spirit in battle
Attrition
The war tactic of literally killing the men one for one until a victor is determined by the only men left standing
Gavrilo Principe
The murderer of Franz Ferdinand. Part of the black hand
Un-Restricted Submarine Warfare
The Germans announced they were going to fire on any ships entering britain.
Gallipoli
A battle between the Australians and the Turks. The turks end up dominating.
Wilson
The representative from the US in the treaty of Versailles
Wilson's 14 points
1. Ending secret treaties 2. Freedom of the seas
3. Removing economic barrier for trade. 4. NAtional armies reduce in size 5. Colonial claims become more fair
Clemenceau
The french representative at Versailles
George
The english representative at Versailles
Romanov's
The Royal family in Russia
Mensheviks
One party during the russian revolution. Thought that many were needed to start a workers revolution
Bolsheviks
One party during the russian revolution. Lead by stalin
Lenin
Brought to Russia secretly by the Germans. Rallied the Bolsheviks and lead the revolution
Trotsky
Was the opponent to Stalin. Some believed he would become dictator
Kerensky
Lead the provisional government during the Russian revolution
Stalin
A strong leader who rose to become totalitarian leader of Russia
Totalitarianism
When a leader has total control over every aspect of the country
Brown Shirts
A wing of the Nazi Power. Helped Hitler rise to power
Mussolini
Italian fascist leader. People became fully convinced with his leadership
Mein Kampf
Hitler's book that covered his own struggle and many anti-Semitic ideas.
Von Hindenburg
Appointed Hitler to Power
Lebensraum
living space, what Hilter promised the German people
Appeasement
policy used by Nevil Chamberlin to try to prevent Hitler from rising to power, failed
Munich Conference
Conference when Chamerlin and Hiler met, gave sudatenland to germany
Non-Agression Pact
a pact where one side doesn't attack the other (signed between Russia and Germany)
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, and Austria
Allied Powers
US, Britian, France, Russia, and others
Blitzkrieg
"lightning war", strategy employed by Hitler to overtake most of western Germany
Guernica
The spanish city that the Nazi's bombed
Operation Barbarossa
Germay's invasion of Russia
Battle of Stalingrad
Turning Point battle int he war. Russians defeated the germans
Battle of Kursk
battle between German and Soviets, first time blitzkrieg was stopped
Rommel
"the desert fox" fought against the allies in africa and on D-Day
Battle of the Bulge
the last thrust by the Germans, failed
The Big Three
Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin
Nuremberg Laws
Anti-Semitic laws that were passed. Yellow stars used to identify jews. Step in Genocide: Exculsion
Ghetto
the part of the city where the Jews were forced to go to
Wannsee Conference
beginning of the Holocaust, where german officials met to instigate the "final solution"
Sudetenland
The piece of land that Hiller demanded from Czechoslovakia (a lot of German speaking people there at the time) given by chamberlain as part of appeasement
Dunkirk
Britain's withdrawal from france, many common citizens donated boats to helps out
Midway
battle where Japan's dominance over the pacific was stopped by us forces
Island Hopping
strategy employed by Douglas McArthur, attack weaker islands and avoid stronger ones, use as airstrips for bombing