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Martin Luther's reforms for the catholic church. Nailed them to the door of all-saints church
Salvation by faith alone
Belief from Luther that faith would be the only determiner of your salvation
The calvinist belief that it was already decided whether or not you would go to heaven
Broke up with the Church of England. He divorced Catharine of Eragon. Re-Married several times
Act of Supremacy
Piece of legislation granted to Henry VIII giving him power of the church of england
Edict of Nantes
In an attempt for civil unity, France allowed for more tolerance against the Huguenots after this meeting
Peace of Augsburg
Formall allowed princes to select between catholicism or lutheranism and any citizens that didn't wish to conform to this could move
30 years war
Originally started due to czech revolt put down by Fredrich II, became a conflict between the catholics and protestants in the HRE. Also between the French and the Hapsburgs.
system in which mother country makes profit off of colonies, want to acquire as much gold/ natural resources as possible, more exports that import, etc
believed in the divine right of kings, oversaw creation of the King James Bible, quarreled with parliament
king when monarchy was restored, moderate ruler, reigned during passage of habeas corpus act
ruler of England after civil war, general during the civil war, instated Puritan values
a law that allowed every prisoner to have a trial, couldn't hold someone in jail indefinitely
English enlightenment thinker. Believed that humans were innately good and free. His ideas were incorporated into the Declaration of Independence
Political philosopher during the French revolution. Wrote the social contract. "Men are born free but everywhere he is in chains"
Released many theories on economics, including competition, supply and demand, free market economy, etc.
Tennis court Oath
Members of the third estate were locked out of the estates general, so they made an agreement to stand strong until a fair constitution was passed
Political prison that was stormed and destroyed. This sparked the moderate phase of the revolution
THe common people felt threatened. Sense of uncertainty spread across France. People banded into small militias
Leader of the congress of vienna, wanted subtle but effective change. Wanted monarchies for stability
John Stuart Mill
Focused on ends not the means, wanted to do good for the most people possible. Feminist
Battle of Marne (first)
The allies attacked a gap in the German lines just outside of Paris. The French fought so hard that the Germans were stopped short and a quick victory on the Western front would be impossible
Battle of Somme
French and English agains the Germans. Both sides bogged down. Over 1 million casualties at the end
The war tactic of literally killing the men one for one until a victor is determined by the only men left standing
Un-Restricted Submarine Warfare
The Germans announced they were going to fire on any ships entering britain.
Wilson's 14 points
1. Ending secret treaties 2. Freedom of the seas
3. Removing economic barrier for trade. 4. NAtional armies reduce in size 5. Colonial claims become more fair
One party during the russian revolution. Thought that many were needed to start a workers revolution
a pact where one side doesn't attack the other (signed between Russia and Germany)
Anti-Semitic laws that were passed. Yellow stars used to identify jews. Step in Genocide: Exculsion
beginning of the Holocaust, where german officials met to instigate the "final solution"
The piece of land that Hiller demanded from Czechoslovakia (a lot of German speaking people there at the time) given by chamberlain as part of appeasement
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