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Inventor of the printing press


Wrote as a proponent for religious tolerance, from the Netherlands

95 theses

Martin Luther's reforms for the catholic church. Nailed them to the door of all-saints church

Salvation by faith alone

Belief from Luther that faith would be the only determiner of your salvation

Bible authority

Luther thought that the bible was the final authority for christians, not the pope

Priesthood of all believers

Luther believed that anyone could become a priest

Diet of Worms

Martin Luther's trial. He was going to be arrested


The calvinist belief that it was already decided whether or not you would go to heaven


John Knox formed this group. Scottish calvanists


French Calvanists

Henry VIII

Broke up with the Church of England. He divorced Catharine of Eragon. Re-Married several times

Thomas More

Wrote Utopia and opposed the king as being the supreme leader of the church

Act of Supremacy

Piece of legislation granted to Henry VIII giving him power of the church of england


the new church that arose as a result of Henry VIII

Ignatius Loyola

Founder of the Jesuits, wanted to promote catholic education and spread the word

Council of Trent

The catholic church examined the protestant ideals and decided how to act.

Index of Forbidden Books

Released by pope paul III to protect the catholic ideas.

St. Bartholomew's Day

Catholic attack targeted at the Huguenots in France

Edict of Nantes

In an attempt for civil unity, France allowed for more tolerance against the Huguenots after this meeting

Peace of Augsburg

Formall allowed princes to select between catholicism or lutheranism and any citizens that didn't wish to conform to this could move

30 years war

Originally started due to czech revolt put down by Fredrich II, became a conflict between the catholics and protestants in the HRE. Also between the French and the Hapsburgs.

Treaty of Westphalia

Ended the 30 years war


The dominating family in Europe in the 17th century


An economic system based on private ownership and means of production


system in which mother country makes profit off of colonies, want to acquire as much gold/ natural resources as possible, more exports that import, etc

James I

believed in the divine right of kings, oversaw creation of the King James Bible, quarreled with parliament

James II

openly catholic, overthrown by william and mary

Charles I

son of James I, poor ruler, very unpopular, started civil war, was eventually beheaded

Charles II

king when monarchy was restored, moderate ruler, reigned during passage of habeas corpus act

Oliver Cromwell

ruler of England after civil war, general during the civil war, instated Puritan values

Glorious revolution

when James II lost his throne, no wars involved


those who supported Cromwell during the civil war


those who supported the king during the civil war

New Model Army

Cromwell's army during the English Civil War

habeas corpus

a law that allowed every prisoner to have a trial, couldn't hold someone in jail indefinitely

English Bill of Rights

created major prohibitions on the monarch's power (see book)

John Locke

English enlightenment thinker. Believed that humans were innately good and free. His ideas were incorporated into the Declaration of Independence

Thomas Hobbes

Political philosopher. Wrote Leviathan. From England


Criticizes European government through humor and letter writing


Political philosopher during the French revolution. Wrote the social contract. "Men are born free but everywhere he is in chains"

Adam Smith

Released many theories on economics, including competition, supply and demand, free market economy, etc.


Places were women would gather to discuss current events.

Mary Geoffrin

Famous for leading discussions in Salons

Individual, Nature, Happiness, Reason, Liberty

5 ideas of the enlightenment

The old regime

Held onto the "old ways" in France. Their ideas clashed with the third estate

First Estate

This estate had members of the clergy

Second Estate

This estate had the nobles

Third Estate

This estate had the common people

Tennis court Oath

Members of the third estate were locked out of the estates general, so they made an agreement to stand strong until a fair constitution was passed

National Assembly

This is what later became of the third estate


Political prison that was stormed and destroyed. This sparked the moderate phase of the revolution

Great fear

THe common people felt threatened. Sense of uncertainty spread across France. People banded into small militias

Declaration of the rights of man

A document passed by the national assembly

Legislative Assembly

This is what later became of the National assembly


A Killing machine used in the reign of terror


A radical political group, lead by Robspierre

Committee of Public Safety

A Committee formed by Robspierre

Thermidorian Reaction

Revolt against Robspierre

The Directory

5 man leading body, came to power after Robspierre


Agreement between the church and state in France, signed by Napoleon

Continental system

Large scale embargo against british trade.

Napoleonic Code

Single set of laws that Napoleon instituted


Idea that anyone could raise up in class, based on your merit. Classes not set in stone

100 Days

Time period when Napoleon was exiled

Louis XVI

Weak indecisive king. somewhat responsible for the french revolution

Marie Antoinette

Queen of France, from Austria, very extravagant and not liked by people

Abbe Sieyes

Speaker of the 3rd estate. Wrote "What is the Third Estate"


British naval officer, beat Napoleon at Trafalgar


Fiery newspaper writer, encouraged violence in the revolution

Congress of Vienna

A meeting in an attempt to settle the damage Napoleon had done to Europe


Leader of the congress of vienna, wanted subtle but effective change. Wanted monarchies for stability


People who had been driven off thrones were restored of their thrones after Napoleon.


A form of leadership in which battle is the "go to" tactic


Italian nationalist. Soul of Italian unification


Brains of the Italian unification


Fighter of Italian unification, leader of the red shirts


Prussian leader. Unified Germany

Kaiser Wilhelm

King of Germany over Bismark

Blood and Iron

A political philosophy in which wars are fought and then the land is industrialized

Franco-Prussian War

Last war for German unification


Philosopher. Most famous works discussed man vs. superman

John Stuart Mill

Focused on ends not the means, wanted to do good for the most people possible. Feminist


Expansion throughout the world.


Economic form in which businesses are run by the state


Workers banded together in these groups in order to gain power

Triple entente

Alliance between France, Britain, and Russia in WWI

Franz Ferdinand

Austria-Hungary prince that got assasinated

Schlieffen Plan

A plan that the Germans would utilize if there was a threat of a war on both fronts

Battle of Marne (first)

The allies attacked a gap in the German lines just outside of Paris. The French fought so hard that the Germans were stopped short and a quick victory on the Western front would be impossible

Battle of Verdun

Battle where the French attacked the Germans. Heavy casualties

Battle of Somme

French and English agains the Germans. Both sides bogged down. Over 1 million casualties at the end


The french attitude of spirit in battle


The war tactic of literally killing the men one for one until a victor is determined by the only men left standing

Gavrilo Principe

The murderer of Franz Ferdinand. Part of the black hand

Un-Restricted Submarine Warfare

The Germans announced they were going to fire on any ships entering britain.


A battle between the Australians and the Turks. The turks end up dominating.


The representative from the US in the treaty of Versailles

Wilson's 14 points

1. Ending secret treaties 2. Freedom of the seas
3. Removing economic barrier for trade. 4. NAtional armies reduce in size 5. Colonial claims become more fair


The french representative at Versailles


The english representative at Versailles


The Royal family in Russia


One party during the russian revolution. Thought that many were needed to start a workers revolution


One party during the russian revolution. Lead by stalin


Brought to Russia secretly by the Germans. Rallied the Bolsheviks and lead the revolution


Was the opponent to Stalin. Some believed he would become dictator


Lead the provisional government during the Russian revolution


A strong leader who rose to become totalitarian leader of Russia


When a leader has total control over every aspect of the country

Brown Shirts

A wing of the Nazi Power. Helped Hitler rise to power


Italian fascist leader. People became fully convinced with his leadership

Mein Kampf

Hitler's book that covered his own struggle and many anti-Semitic ideas.

Von Hindenburg

Appointed Hitler to Power


living space, what Hilter promised the German people


policy used by Nevil Chamberlin to try to prevent Hitler from rising to power, failed

Munich Conference

Conference when Chamerlin and Hiler met, gave sudatenland to germany

Non-Agression Pact

a pact where one side doesn't attack the other (signed between Russia and Germany)

Axis Powers

Germany, Italy, and Austria

Allied Powers

US, Britian, France, Russia, and others


"lightning war", strategy employed by Hitler to overtake most of western Germany


The spanish city that the Nazi's bombed

Operation Barbarossa

Germay's invasion of Russia

Battle of Stalingrad

Turning Point battle int he war. Russians defeated the germans

Battle of Kursk

battle between German and Soviets, first time blitzkrieg was stopped


"the desert fox" fought against the allies in africa and on D-Day

Battle of the Bulge

the last thrust by the Germans, failed

The Big Three

Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin

Nuremberg Laws

Anti-Semitic laws that were passed. Yellow stars used to identify jews. Step in Genocide: Exculsion


the part of the city where the Jews were forced to go to

Wannsee Conference

beginning of the Holocaust, where german officials met to instigate the "final solution"


The piece of land that Hiller demanded from Czechoslovakia (a lot of German speaking people there at the time) given by chamberlain as part of appeasement


Britain's withdrawal from france, many common citizens donated boats to helps out


battle where Japan's dominance over the pacific was stopped by us forces

Island Hopping

strategy employed by Douglas McArthur, attack weaker islands and avoid stronger ones, use as airstrips for bombing

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