Upgrade to remove ads
Church History Test 3
Terms in this set (51)
period of questioning and interoggation
Who is St. Francis of Assisi?
St. Francis of Assisi was the founder of the Order of Friars Minor, also called the Franciscans. He is considered one of the most popular saints of the Church.
Who is St. Dominic?
St. Dominic was a man from Spain. He was the founder of the Order of Preachers, also called the Dominicans. He had been sent to convert the Albigensian as a young priest. Soon his followers dedicated themselves to preaching throughout Europe with their words and actions. Dominic is the first person to organize communities of women to lead and preach. Pope was irritated at the Albigensians. He told the Dominicans that their preaching was taking too long.
Who were the Albigensians?
A sect that the Church considered a foe because of their heresy which saw all material things including the human body as bad.
Why were heresies feared?
Heresies were feared because they spread the idea that all material things were evil. They thought that the heresy would tear apart civilization and lead to eternal damnation for those people lured astray.
The failure of nonviolent means to convert the Albigensians led to WHAT?
The Pope made civil authorities punish heretics by ordering them to be tortured and be put to death.
What was the difference between the Papal Inquisition and the Spanish Inquisition?
The Papal Inquisition is the Pope's inquisition that set up court systems to try Albigensians, and ordered civil authorities to torture them and put them to death. It lasted for 600 years.
Black Death (bubonic plague)
a highly contagious, painful, deadly disease. It came from fleas on rats on ships. ⅓ of Europe's population died from the plague.
a period when the pope moved the papal headquarters to the south of France to the town of Avignon. He appointed all French cardinals.
Great Papal Schism
the split between the Christians in Germany and northern Italy were divided because of the popes.
a movement in an effort to recognize general church councils as having more authority over the church than the pope did. They could kick out a pope and church leaders could elect a new pope. The movement was unsuccessful.
What was the SOLUTION proposed to end the Papal Schism?
the emphasis on the importance of this world, and on making human life more fulfilling by way of the classical arts and literature and through scientific innovations.
Why was the Black Death a problem for Church?
They were losing their followers and their church leaders. There was no one to lead the church. The Pope would just pick random people to be priests. The replacement priests (16 year old boys) had no education and no theological education.
What were some new problems for the Papacy?
People are starting to be more loyal to their country than to the pope.
How many men claimed to be pope at one point during the Avignon Papacy?
Who was Catherine of Siena?
A thirty year old member of a Dominican Lay Order. She used the power of persuasion to get the pope to step down and move the papacy back to rome so there is only one pope.
What was the Renaissance? What contributions did it make to the Church?
The cultural movement where educated Europeans studied the literature and art of the ancient Greeks and Romans.
Why did the exploration of new lands appeal to Europeans at this time?
1. Have a new start to leave the misery and chaos.
2. Get rich and they want to find new ways to trade.
3. Spread Christianity to the new lands.
A place or state of suffering inhabited by the souls of sinners who are expiating their sins before going to heaven. They are being cleansed so that they can be perfect for heaven.
A movement to change and protest corruption in the Catholic Church.
The traditional catholic faith and practice, which had become corrupted, was spelled out and restored.
council of trent
A meeting at Trent which concentrated on defining Catholic teachings and on settling new rules for establishing order and eliminating corruption in the church.
A complete interrogation of church and state. (they are the same)
The belief of Calvinists that God not only knew the destiny of individuals, but willed it for them. It was believed that each person's fate was predetermined by God and no one could do anything to change it.
Who was Martin Luther? What are some details of his biography?
Martin Luther was a Catholic Priest from Germany. He loved being Catholic. It was not Luther's intention to start a new branch of Christianity. He simply wanted to fix the problems in the Catholic Church. He started the Protestant Reformation.
What are Luther's concerns about the Catholic Church?
Martin Luther HATED the selling of indulgences.
What are the 95 Theses?
Luther's main ideas that he wants to bring to the public's attention about the corruption of the Church. He nails it to the church because everyone went to Church. This is theologically ironic because he nails the problems of the Church on the Church door. Martin gained a lot of support from people in his community because he had the bravery to say what everyone else was thinking. He could be called a heretic and taken to inquisition court. The Pope did not arrest him because he thought he was just a crazy nobody. The Pope eventually sends soldiers to arrest Luther. His friend hears this, and takes him to hide in the tower. The Pope EXCOMMUNICATES Martin Luther.
What are some characteristics of the first Protestant Lutheran Churches?
Martin Luther gets married, holds prayer services at his house around kitchen table, believes that there are only three sacraments that matter (baptism, eucharist, confession). He says we HAVE to focus on the Bible. He gets rid of prayer cards, rosaries, saints, no material objects! He says that Church leaders should be allowed to be married.
After 75-80 years, Europe was 50% Catholic and 50% Protestant!!!
Who is Ignatius Loyola?
The founder of the new religious order called the Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits. He is a former soldier and a scholar who loved to read and study. Church leaders picked him to reteach the people how to be catholic. Jesuit men built schools and universities where they were taught how to be catholic. Reunification after graduating of students in these universities.
Who are John Calvin and King Henry VIII? What role did they play in the spread of Protestantism in Europe?
John Calvin was a French reformer who created his own version of Protestantism, which became known as Calvinism. Calvin advocated very simple church worship without elaborate rituals, ornamentation, or statues of the medieval tradition. He wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion. King Henry VIII was given the title "Defender of the Faith" by Pope Leo X. But he did not have a son to succeed him on the English Throne. Since his wife Catherine of Aragon bore him a daughter, Mary, but not a son, he wanted the Pope to annul their marriage. (An annulment means that a marriage never existed because there was a misunderstanding) However, the Pope refused. Henry rebelled against the Pope and declared himself the head of the Church of England, called Anglican Church. He married a total of six times, and finally bore a son named Edward. King Henry rejected Lutheran teachings and never considered himself Protestant.
Spanish explorers who travel to Latin America and conquer.
people that go to different countries to spread their religion.
Who is Juan Diego? :)
He was a poor mexican peasant who sees an image of a woman that at first he does not know. She asks that a church be built, then he runs to the spanish bishop. He opens his cloak and roses come out with the image of Guadalupe.
Who is "Our Lady of Guadalupe?" Why is her appearance important at this point in mission history?
This is Mary as she appears to Juan Diego. She appears as a dark-skinned person and she is wearing traditional mexican clothes. There is some biblical imagery and the language she spoke was the language of native mexicans (not Spanish). They learn that Christianity is not just for Europeans. It is for EVERYBODY!!!
Who is Fr. Antonio Montesinos? :)
Spanish Dominican priest who somehow ends up as a missionary in the Dominican Republic. He sees that the conquistadors are using the natives as slaves. A couple weeks before Christmas, he gives a sermon about the evils of slavery and Christmas isn't going to come because Christians are using natives as slaves. He says the slave owners are biggest sinners.
1. Spanish and Portuguese said that native converts were not allowed to get Eucharist.
2. They did not want native men to become priests because that would mean they were equal to the Spanish men.
Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith
The Congregation for Propagation of Faith was a school started by the Pope. It is still in operation today, and it educates and trains missionaries.
Who is Francis Xavier? :)
Spanish Jesuit who went to India to spread the Gospel. His method for conversation with the Indians was gentle and enjoyable. He included everyone and he taught people in their own language that they spoke. In Japan, 200,000 people converted to Christianity. The Japanese leader banned Christianity in fear of it taking over and killed people who continued to practice Christianity.
Who is Mateo Ricci?
An Italian Jesuit who became well know in the royal circles. He brought clocks as gifts to emperor. He dresses like the Chinese, learns the language, he wants to reach out to the Chinese. The technology and cultural advances of China was the best. Every Catholic in the world spoke Latin at mass. But the Jesuits exempt them, allowing them to pray in Chinese, and they started holding Chinese masses. Someone tells the Pope, and he agrees and says they must pray in Latin. Christianity is banned in China by the emperor.
Some Europeans came to colonize Africa.
Challenge: SLAVERY- there were slave traders attacking Africans. Islamic missionaries were trying to convert the villagers to Islam. If they did this, the Islamic would tell the slave traders. The Africans began running away to Christian missionaries to be safe, convert, and avoid slavery.
Who is Mother Teresa? How is her ministry related to the work of the two men listed above?
She would not have been able to do her missionary work without Francis Xavier.
Who was primarily responsible for missionary work with Native Americans?
French Jesuit men
Describe the GOOD and the BAD things that happened between Christian missionaries and the Native American community.
GOOD: They educated them, some positive interaction.
BAD: Diseases were spread, they educated them (European style schools without much consideration for native american culture), offensive language like "savages" that led to discrimination.
Who was St. Kateri Tekakwitha?
A Native American Christian who cares about nature. She died when she was 24 years old from European diseases (smallpox). Her family and her native community saw her as a traitor because she became a Christian. Europeans did not accept her in the Church because of their discrimination of Native Americans. She served the poor and was genuinely connected to Jesus. First Native American saint in the US.
What challenges of identity arose for Native Americans who chose to convert to Christianity?
They were considered traitors by their communities, but also were discriminated by the Europeans. They did not fit in anywhere.
Who was Fr. Samual Mazzachelli?
He is a missionary. He is very well known for working positively with the Native Americans. He published the first book ever in Wisconsin of Winnebago prayers. He was an architect who built churches. He died from pneumonia pretty young.
SHORT ANSWER #1: How did the Protestant Reformation change the face of Christianity in the modern world? What continues to divide our Christian community today? What can we do to be more united in our faith?
SHORT ANSWER #2: What can we learn from the positive things missionaries have done? What are some big mistakes they have made that we can learn from?
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
ACC Western Civilization Semester 1 Exam
Final Exam- HY
HISTORY TEST!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Middle ages test-The…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Moral Issues Test 1
DP Chapter 2
Desktop Publishing Final