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Anatomy and Physiology 2 Final Exam Study Guide--Mulitple Choice

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The % of RBC in a blood sample is called the
Hematocrit
The most abundant type of plasma protein is
albumin
A blood clot that breaks loose and travels in the blood flow is called an
embolus
When hemoglobin molecules are decomposed a greenish pigment called _____ is formed
biliverdin
The test in which the % of various types of leukocytes in a blood sample is determined is the ___ WBC cell
differential
Platelets tend to stick to the _____ in connective tissue
collagen
Normally the most common type of leukocyte in a blood sample is the ____
neutrophil
_____ is a powerful anticoagulant relased by the basophils and mast cells
heparin
The hormone released from the kidneys that promotes the production of RBC is____
erythropoietin
The process by which bleeding is stopped is___
hemostasis
The foreign substances that trigger immune responses are called____
antigens
The condition caused by an accumulation of tissue fluid in the interstitial spaces is____
edema
A substance that can stimulate a primary immune response but is unable to produce the symptoms of a disease is a _____
vaccine
Excessive tissue fluid is returned to venous circulation by means of____
lymph vessels
The most common type of immunoglobulin is___
IgG
A newborn infant may have some defense against disgestive and respiratory distubances because of IgA obtained from its mother's____
milk
The region of lymph node through which blood vessels pass is____
hilum
The basic event in the formation of a blood clot is the change of____
fibrinogen to fibrin
Plasma protein properly described?
Beta globulins transport lipids and fat-soluble vitamins
Lymph nodes occur in groups throughout the body except in the_____
CNS
Cell mediated immunity (aka cellular immune response) is a process whereby__________
T-cells attach themselves directly to antigens and destroy them
Injections of gamma globulin are sometimes given to provide___
artificially acquired passive immunity
Which of the following is not needed for the formation of a blood clot?
Albumin
Blood platelets___
All; release serotonin, lack nuclei, number from 130 k to 360 k per mm2 of blood
Following the primary immune response, the cells that give rise to memory cells are
B-cells only
The release of tissue thromboplastin initiates___
the extrinisic clotting mechanism
The most active phagocytic cells found in circulating blood are____
neutrophils and monocytes
Which of the following is an agranulocyte?
a monocyte (or lymphocyte)
Hemophilia
All; lack of clotting factor, appears most often in males, can result in large intramusculature meatomas, blood in the urine, and bleeding into joints
Inheritance is due to recessive gene located on x chromosome
x-linked
A gene that is not expressed in the heterozygous condition is
recessive
Incomplete dominance is defined as
gene pairs occurring in two forms that are expressed differently and neither is dominant to the other
In order for a recessive trait to be expressed, a person must
inherit 2 recessive genes for a trait
Which of the following is true in regard to the determination of the gender of a baby?
The sex chromosome in the sperm determines the gender of the baby
The presence of the y chromosone in a cell promotes the synthesis of the ____ protein, which results in_____
transcription factor (SRY gene); formation of testes
If an egg cell without an x chromosome is fertilized by an x-bearing sperm cell, this will result in
Turner's Syndrome
Tissue fluid is___ and lymph is____
forced out of blood plasma and generally lacking in proteins; absorbed into lymph capillaries and rich in proteins and foreign particles
The spleen is much like a lymph node except that the spleen
filters blood
The form of anemia that is most likely to be caused by overexposure to ionizing radiation is
aplastic anemia
The cells called cytotoxic T cells destroy
cancer and virus containing cells
The antibodies involved in allergic reactions
belong to the immunoglobulin E group (IgE)
When the alleles of a gene pair are different they are said to be
heterozygous
An individual who is homozygous is dominant for a trait that can be symbolized as
AA
Plasma cells function to
produced antibody molecules
What is the difference between serum and plasma?
plasma contains fibrinogen; serum does not
Erythroblastsosis fetalis is most likely to become a problem in Rh-negative mothers as a
second Rh-positive fetus develops
Which of the following formed elements releases serotonin?
Platelets
Cytotoxic T cells destroy their target cells by releasing a substance that affects
cell membranes
The spleen
all; is the largest lymphatic organ, contains numerous phagocytic cells, contains nodules similar to lymphatic nodules
Which of the following would not be possible blood type for a baby of a mother with type ab and father with type b blood?
type O
The primary functions of lymph include
both returning proteins to the bloodstream and transporting foreign particles to the lymph nodes
Genes that cause abnormal development and the death of an individual are called
lethal genes
A lymphatic obstruction can lead to edema by
proteins accumluating and increasing the osmotic pressure of the tissue fluid
T lymphocytes are responsible for
cell-mediated immunity
If the parent genotypes are Aa and Aa the offspring are expected to be
1/4 (25%) AA, 1/2 (50%) Aa, 1/4 (25%) aa
Prolonged use of certain drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen may be associated with a tendency to bleed excessively because these drugs inhibit the activity of
platelets
The lymph nodes of the axillary region receive lymph mainly from the
arm and mammary gland
As a consequence of starvation or a protein deficient diet, the blood protein concentration
decreases and water accumulates in tissue spaces
An antigen is___ whereas an antibody is____
a foreign substance such as a protein or polysaccharide to which lymphocytes respond; a globular protein that reacts with an antigen to eliminate them
When the allelles of a gene pair are identical they are said to be
homozygous
Nondisjunction can result in chromosome disorders due to the fact that
some cells have too many chromosome and others have too few
Platelets are best described as
cytoplasmic fragments of cells
Biliverdin and bilirubin are pigments that result from a breakdown of RBC's; biliverdin is ____ in color and bilirubin is ____ in color
greenish; orange
When is the chromosome number reduced by one-half during gametogenesis?
during the first meitoic division
A primary function of lymphocytes is to
act against foreign substances
Of the following which are most active as phagocytes?
neutrophils
The origin of the 46 chromosomes in a human zygote is
half from sperm cell and half from egg cell
Oxyhemoglobin is ___ in color whereas deoxyhemoglobin is ____ in color
bright red; bluish
Which of the following is the same for mature human spermatozoa and ova
the number of chromosomes in the cell
In an autoimmune disease the immune response is directed toward
self-antigens
Which of the following are correct concerning granulocytes?
all; larger than RBC, contain granules in the cytoplasm, formed in the red bone marrow
Autosomes number
22 pairs
Sickle cell anemia is caused by
an abnormal form of hemoglobin
Two major factors that influence the development of individual characteristics are
heredity and environment
X-linked genes are always expressed more frequently in males than in females due to the fact that
there is no allele on y chromosomes
If the parent genotypes of AA and aa, the offspring are expected to be
all Aa
The type of resistance that is acquired as a result of developing the disease is
naturally acquired active immunity
The formation of lymph increases as a result of
increasing osmotic pressure in tissue fluid
If lymphatic tissue is removed from an axillary region, the arm on that side is likely to
become edematous
Genotype is defined as
combination of genes in a zygote
Newborns are sometimes exposed to fluorescent lights as treatment for
physiologic jaundice
To avoid the AIDs infection, healthcare workers should
avoid contact with patient's body fluids
Homologous pairs of chromosomes are
chromosomes from the mother and father that contain similar genetic information
Interferon is a group of hormone-like peptides produced by cells in response to the presence of
viruses
The percentage of solids in a sample of human blood is normally
45%
The final step in the formation of a blood clot is
that thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin
A vaccine produces its effects by
stimulating a primary immune response
Which of the following is not a tissue response associated with inflammation?
Nearby blood vessels become constricted
Leukocytosis is an increase in WBC above 10k per mm2 of blood and can occur
all; during emotional disturbances, following vigorous activity, during acute infections
Which is an example of a specific body defense mechansim?
immunity
An example of homozygous gene pair is
aa
A positive tuberculin skin test indicates that the person
has been exposed to the mycobacteria that causes TB
The functions of the lymphatic system do not include
transporting hormones to interstitial smooth muscle
Heparin prevents the clotting of blood by
inhibiting the formation of prothrombin activator and the action of thrombin on fribrinogen
The cells that are primarily responsible for immunity are
lymphocytes and macrophages
Blood vessel spasms following an injury are stimulated by
serotonin released from platelets
The form of anemia that is caused by a lack of dietary iron is called
pernicious anemia
Vitamin B12 is poorly absorbed in the absence of
intrinsic factor
The normal WBC is
5K - 10K
Two substances useful for dissolving blood clots are
urokinase and streptokinase
The biconcave cells in blood that lack nuclei when they are mature are the
RBC's
Which of the following is the correct sequence for the development of RBC's?
Hemocytoblast, erythroblast, erythrocyte
The condition called thrombocytopenia is due to a deficiency of
platelets
The condition called cyanosis is caused by an increased blood concentration of
deoxyhemoglobin
Patients with leukemia have a tendency to bleed because they have a deficiency of
platelets
As a platelet plug forms, platelets relase the vasoconstriciting substance called
serotonin
Agglutinogent of the various blood types are examples of
antigens
Erythroblastosis fetalis can be prevented by treating
Rh-negative mothers with anti-Rh agglutinin
Type AB blood contains
agglutinogen A and B