66 terms

Exam 3


Terms in this set (...)

Mirror neuron discovery-
when children observe the actions of their teacher or another figure they will replicate/mirror it. This was demonstrated through the video of the bop clown that kids would knock over when their teacher would demonstrate it.
Basic assumptions
(Select Obedience) People are selective about what they learn, meaning is constructive by the learner not the environment, prior knowledge, and beliefs play a role, and people are actively involved in their own learning.
Compare behavioral & cognitive views
behavioral: are learned, learning dependent on external events, and reinforcement strengthens responses. Cognitive Views: knowledge is learned, changes in knowledge changes behavior, people bring internal knowledge to situations, reinforcement as a type of feedback.
Brain's impact on learning
The brains impacts and is impacted by learning.
Learning's impact on brain
Think the London taxicab drivers.
How learning affect neurons
Learning changes communication among neurons, mirror neurons(first found in monkeys), and knowledge guides new learning.
How knowledge affects new learning
assimilation & accommodation
Recent version of Information Processing system
You can go straight from sensory memory to long term memory.
Characteristics of the Sensory Memory
It is the initial processing of the five senses (seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting, smelling), large capacity, and the duration is about 1-3 seconds.
Perception -- definition, three parts, & explanation of how it works *
* -Perception is detecting stimulus and assigning meaning to it. Organizing sensory information into patterns or relationships. There are three parts bottom up, Gestalt theory, and top down. Bottom up is when you look at all the different parts and then you name the object. Example is when you look at a chair and say that because it has four legs and a back it is a chair. Top down is when you look at something and put a name to it and then break it down into parts. Gestalt theory is the principles of perception and how we see patterns in the world. Think the old women and young lady picture we saw in class.
Examples of Gestalt principles
Illusion images.
Attention *
It is the first step in learning. It takes effort. It is guided by what we know and what we need to know. We can only pay to one cognitively demanding task at a time. At first it may be cognitively demanding but then over time and practice it becomes automatic. Think back to when you first started driving to now
Working Memory-- characteristics*
-Has a capacity of 7 give or take 2 so really 5-9 which is why phone numbers is seven digits long. It doesn't stay very long. If you were to get scared or something you would forget it.
Central executive-
(CAR) Pool of mental resources for cognitive activities like focusing attention, reasoning, and comprehension.
Phonological Loop
-When you repeat something over and over again to memorize it.
Visuospatial Sketchpad-
You visualize what you are trying to remember. (potato to Ireland)
Episodic Buffer-
When you use the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad together. This is the best kind of memory.
Maintenance vs elaborative rehearsal-
Maintenance is repeating info again and again. It takes a while to store into long term memory. Elaborative is connecting new information to old information to remember it.
Benefits of chunking-
You will remember it better. Like the numbers we did in class or how phone numbers are chunked into groups of three or four.
Forgetting: two main reasons-
Forgetting is our friend. We forget because of interference. So new information confuses the old information. Or because of decay from lack of use. Though our professor believes that we never totally forget anything we just struggle retrieving it.
Kim Peek-
He never forgot anything. Think savant of savants. He could see anything once and remember it for life.
Long-term Memory characteristics*-
Unlimited capacity, permanent, organized. Three types of knowledge which are declarative knowledge (knowledge that can be declared. Think symbols), procedural knowledge (knowing how to do something), and self-regulatory knowledge (knowing when and why to use the procedural and declarative knowledge). POPCORN DOWNSTAIRS.
Social Learning theory -
emphasizes learning through the observation of others. (This was Bandura's original theory.)
Social cognitive theory -
theory that adds cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perception, and expectations to social learning theory. (This is Bandura's more recent theory.)
Modeling -
changes in behavior, thinking or emotions that happen through observing another person - model. Also>> - demonstrating behaviors, feelings or information to others so they can learn by observing.
Willpower; self- discipline; work styles that protect opportunities to reach goals by applying self-regulated learning.
Serial position effect
the tendency to remember the beginning and the end, but not the middle of a list.
Ripple effect
contagious spreading of behavior through imitation
Spreading activation
retrieval of pieces of information based on their relatedness to one another. Remembering one bit of information activates (stimulates) recall of associated information.
Dual coding (processing)
storing information in long-term memory through both visual images and verbal units.
Attention Deficit Disorder
Disruptive behavior disorders marked by over activity, excessive difficulty sustaining attention or impulsiveness. Exercise, interest, and organization have been found to mitigate these behaviors
Mirror neuron discovery
when children observe the actions of their teacher or another figure they will replicate/mirror it. This was demonstrated through the video of the bop clown that kids would knock over when their teacher would demonstrate it.
Influences on choices of models: ?
•Learning by observing others, Development status of observer, Model prestige and competence, Vicarious consequences, Outcome expectancy, Goal setting, Self-efficacy. The people we choose as role-models are people we want to be like because of their values and competence.
Four steps of observational learning:
1.Attention 2.Retention 3.Reproduction 4.Motivation and Reinforcement
•Direct reinforcement
•Vicarious reinforcement
Human agency-
The ability to make intentional choices design and execute plans and actions
Areas that can be helped through observational learning strategies:
•Directing attention
•Encouraging existing behaviors •Changing inhibitions •Teaching new behaviors and attitudes
•Arousing emotions
Conclusions from Bobo doll experiment*
other eyes are watching positive reinforcement.
--watch and learn from other people.
Explicit memory-
This is conscious and intentional recollection of information such as appointments and past events. Knowledge from memory that is recalled and consciously considered, two better than one, concepts use to group similar events, ideas, people, prototypes
Semantic Memory
Data structures that allow us to represent large amounts of complex material, make inferences, and understand new information.
Episodic Memory
flashbulb memories
Implicit memory-
-knowledge that we are not aware of recalling:
•Classical conditioning
•Procedural Memory
•Priming effects
Teaching toward self-efficacy-
•Assign complex tasks
•Achievable, yet challenging •Have multiple goals •Engage students and extended over time •Provide students with feedback
•Share control with students
•Choice results in increased motivation •Choice allows students to adjust level of challenge
•Model good decision making for students
•Assign tasks that are self-evaluative
•Evaluation embedded within activities•Should emphasize process as well as products
•Focus on personal progress•Often less anxiety than traditional assessment
•Encourage collaboration
•Effective collaboration reflects climate of community•Collaboration encourages co-regulation
Emotional self-regulation-
•Awareness of own emotions and the feelings of others
•Skills include:•Self-awareness •Self-management •Social awareness •Relationship skills •Responsible decision-making
Cognitive Behavior Modification - Self talk -
•Self-talk strategies include:
•Listening •Planning •Working •Checking
How to teach self-regulated learning-
•Provide opportunities to identify and analyze the task at hand •Teach learning strategies •Encourage students to reflect on whether they were successful and devise strategies for overcoming shortcomings in their self-regulation process
Self-regulated learning cycle-
•4 main parts:
•Analyzing the task •Setting goals •Engaging in learning •Adjusting/Reflecting
Factors that affect self-regulated learning-
Self-Regulated learning requires effort
•Finding new strategies
•Low efficacy leads to •Task avoidance •Giving up easily
•Greater efficacy leads to
•Greater effect •Persistence in the face of setbacks •Higher goals
Teachers with a high sense of efficacy
•Work harder •Persist longer •Are less likely to experience burn-out
Teacher sense of self-efficacy*
•A teacher's belief that he or she can reach even difficult students to help them learn
Self-efficacy and motivation:
of self confidence and related to your success. (belief about if you can do something). Your belief in your ability to accomplish a specific task.
#Storing & retrieving info-
ways we store and retrieve information: mind maps, retrieval practice, teaching the information, writing, memories systems (peg-ex putting information on your fingers to remember them-, loci system) - these are all part of mnemonics
Behaviorism is:
view of learning provides an inadequate explanation of learning language and culture. We are all blank slates (Tabula Rasa). This is something that you can see.
#Social Cognitive Psychology
Difference between behaviorism & social cognitive psychology:
Social Cognitive Theory includes learning from modeling (the social) as well as thoughts, beliefs, expectations, and judgements (the cognitive). We do have information in our brain. We take charge of our learning. We have information in our brains.
4 Suggestions for developing declarative knowledge-
something I can declare by writing or speaking. Don't just memorize for a test.
Teaching each other
Singing a song - keeping the declarative knowledge, so that it actually stays with you.
12 Angry Men-Movie.
A guy has been accused of murder. One guy says not guilty. They talk about it and find out there is no way the guy could have committed the murder. So he is found not guilty. It is because of our schemas and biases that we make assumptions. We all come with our own backgrounds and opinions.
Forgetting and long-term memory-
If we do not organize our experiences and knowledge or if we do not do something to recall what we have learning we will forget and it will not go to our long term memory
Each time you pull something out of your brain, you reconstruct it. Why our stories get better over time.
Spreading activation-
When taking a test on a question that you don't know, you continue on the exam until you get a question that helps you remember the answer to the previous question so you go back to it.
Levels of processing-
(There are really 2 levels of processing) When you learn something you process at different levels. Justification for giving tests in school. Tests make us process at a deeper level. The deeper the process the more likely you will be able to retrieve it on a later date.
*Elaboration -
Storing and retrieving, connecting to the past (Opposite is just plain repetition.)
Just saying the information over and over.
the brain wants to be organized. If you don't take charge of your brain and organize it yourself, your brain will organize for you. Think the junk drawer. If you are not organized in storing your information, then it will be like digging through the junk drawer to retrieve that information later.
Pictures that help you store and retrieve information. Try drawing pictures when studying.(mind map)
where you learned it. For example, being in the same room to take the test that you were in when you learned it.
*all of these are part of storing and retrieving information