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92 terms

Sociology Ch. 5-7

STUDY
PLAY
social interaction
the ways in which people respond to one another
social structure
the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships
status
a term used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large groups of society
ascribed status
a social position assigned to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talents or characteristics
achieved status
a social position that is within our power to change
master status
a status that dominates others and thereby determines a person's general position in society
social role
a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status
role conflict
the situation that occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person
role strain
the difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations
role exit
the process of disengagement from a role that is central to one's self-identity in order to extablish a new role and identity
group
any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis
primary group
a small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation
secondary group
a formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding
in-group
any group or category to which people feel they belong
out-group
a group or category to which people feel they do not belong
reference group
any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior
coalition
a temporary or permanent alliance geared toward a common goal
social network
a series of social relationships that links individuals directly to others, and through them indirectly to still more people
avatar
a person's online representation as a character
social institution
an organized pattern of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs
bureaucracy
a component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency
ideal type
a construct or model for evaluating specific cases
alientation
loss of control over our creative human capacity to produce, separation from the products we make, and isolation from our fellow producers
trained incapacity
the tendency of workers in a bureaucracy to become so specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice potential problems
goal displacement
over-zealous conformity to official regulations of a bureacracy
Peter principle
a principle of organizational life according to which every employee within a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence
bureaucratization
the process by which a group, organization, or social movement increasingly relies on technicalrational decision making in the pursuit of efficiency
McDonaldization
the process by which the principles of efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control shape organization and decision making, in the United States and around the world
iron law of oligarchy
a principle of organizational life under which even a democratic organization will eventually develop into a bureacracy ruled by a few individuals
classical theory
an approach to the study of formal organizations that views workers as being motivated almost entirely by economic rewards
scientific management approach
another name for the classic theory of formal organizations
human relations approach
an approach to the study of formal organizations that emphasizes the role of people, communication, and participation in a bureaucracy and tends to focus on the informal structure of the organization
Gemeinschaft
a close-knit community often found in rural areas in whcih strong personal bonds unite members
Gesellschaft
a community often urban, that is large and impersonal, with little commitment to the group or the conses on values
mechanical solidarity
social cohesion based on shared experiences, knowledge, and skills in which things function more or less the way they always have, with minimal change
organic solidarity
a collective consciousness that rests on mutual interdependence, characteristic of societies with a complex division of labor
hunting-and-gathering society
a preindustrial society in which people plant seeds and crops rather than merely subsist on available foods
agrarian society
the most technologically advanced form of preindustrial society. Members are engaged primarily in the production of food, but they increase their crop yields through technological innovations such as the plow
industrial society
a society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services
postindustrial society
a society whose economic system is engaged primarily in the processing and control of information
postmodern society
a technologically sophisticated, pluralistic, interconnected, globalized society
social control
the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in society
sanction
a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
conformity
the act of going along with peers-individuals of our own status who have no special right to direct our behavior
obedience
compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure
informal social control
social control that is carried out casually by ordinary people through such means as laugher, smiles, and ridicule
formal social control
social control that is carried out by authorized agents
law
governmental social control
control theory
a view of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society's norms
deviance
behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society
stigma
a label used to devalue members of a certain social groups
crime
a violation of criminal law for which some governmental law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties
index crimes
the eight types of crime reported annually by the FBI in the Uniform Crime Reports: murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson
victimization survey
a questionnaire or interview given to a sample of the population to determine whether people have been victims of crime
white-collar crime
illegal acts commited by affluent, "respectable" individuals in the course of business activities
victimless crime
a term used by sociologists to describe the willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services
organized crime
the work of a group that regulates relations among criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities
transnational crime
crime that occurs across multiple national borders
anomie
Durkheim's term for the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
anomie theory of deviance
Merton's theory of deviance as an adaptation of socially prescribed goals or of the means governing their attainment, or both
cultural transmission
a school of criminology that argues that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions
differential association
a theory of deviance that holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts
social disorganization theory
the theory that attributes increase in crime and deviance to the absense or breakdown of communal relationships
labeling theory
an approach to deviance that attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants while others engaged in the same behavior are not
social-reaction approach
another name for labeling theory
differential justice
differences in the way social control is exercised over different groups
substantive definition of family
a definition of the family based on blood, meaning shared genetic heritage, and law, meaning social recognition and affirmation of the bond including both marriage and adoption
kinship
the state of being related to eachother
bilateral descent
a kinship system in which both sides of a person's family are regarded as equally important
patrilineal descent
a kinship system in which only the father's relatives are significant
matrilineal descent
a kinship system in which only the mother's relatives are significant
extended family
a family in which relatives- such as grandparents, aunts, unlcles- live in the same household as parents and their children
nuclear family
a married couple and their unmarried children living together
monogamy
a form of marriage in which one woman and one man are married only to eachother
serial monogamy
a form of marriage in which a person may have several spouses in his or her lifetime but only one spouse at a time
polygamy
a form of marriage in which an individual may have several husbands or wives simultaneously
polygyny
a form of polygamy in which a man may have more than one wife at the same time
polyandry
a form of polygamy in which a woman may have more than one husband at the same time
functionalist definition of families
a definition of familes that focuses on what families do for society and for their members
patriarchy
a society in which men dominate in family decision making
matriarchy
woman dominate in family decision making
egalitarian family
an authority pattern in which spouses are regarded as equals
endogamy
the restriction of mate selection to people within the same group
exogamy
the requirement that people select a mate outside certain groups
incest taboo
the prohibition of sexual relationships between certain culturally specified relatives
homogamy
the conscious or unconscious tendency to select a mate with personal characteristics similar to one's own
machismo
a sense of virility, personal worth, and pride in one's maleness
familism
pride in the extended family, expressed through the maintence of close ties and strong obligations to kinfolk outside the immediate family
adoption
in a legal sense, a process that allows for the transfer of the legal rights, responsibilites, and privileges of parenthood to a new legal parent or parents
single-parent family
a family in which only one parent is present to care for the children
cohabitation
the practice of living together as a male-female couple without marrying
domestic partnership
two unrelated adults who share a mutually caring relationship, reside together, and agree to be jointly responsible for their dependents, basic living expenses, and other common necessities