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In order for a sensation to become a perception,

it must received by the somatosensory cortex.

The term general senses refers to sensitivity to all of the following, except

taste (NOT)

Pain receptors are fast-adapting receptors.


Which of the following is not one of the special senses?


If a friend is talking about someone she knows who lost his special senses, you would correct her when you hear her mention ________, because it is not a special sense.


The general senses

involve receptors that are relatively simple in structure.


are found within the dermis, free nerve endings, and for "cold" are structurally indistinguishable from those for "warm."

Chemoreceptors are located in all of the following, except

carotid bodies.
the organs of smell.
the organs of taste.
in the skin. (NOT)
aortic bodies.

Endorphins can reduce perception of sensations initiated by


Which of these is not a property of thermoreceptors?

They are slow-adapting.

Mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called


________ are receptors in the aorta that monitor the blood pressure.


Receptors that monitor the position of joints belong to the category called


Tactile receptors composed of capsules that surround a core of collagen fibers intertwined with dendrites are called

Ruffini corpuscles.

A tactile receptor composed of highly coiled dendrites that are surrounded by modified Schwann cells and a fibrous capsule is a

tactile (Meissner) corpuscle.

Which of the following is not a property of thermoreceptors?

found in skeletal muscle, hypothalamus, and skin
sensation conducted in same pathway as pain
project to reticular formation
cold receptors outnumber warm receptors
tonic response to temperature change(NOT)

Mechanoreceptors might detect which of the following sensations?

muscle length
all of the above

Pain is to ________ as cold is to ________.

nociceptors; thermoreceptors

Sensations of burning or aching pain

cause a generalized activation of the reticular formation and the thalamus.

Your uncle was just diagnosed with a heart attack. One of his major symptoms is left arm pain. You are not surprised because you are familiar with the phenomenon of

referred pain.

Which of the following kinds of information do fine-touch and light-pressure mechanoreceptors provide?

movement of the stimulus.
shape of the stimulus.
location of the stimulus.
texture of the stimulus.
all of the above

Which ascending tract carries the sensations for fine touch and vibration?

posterior (dorsal) column

The spinal tract that only carries sensations from proprioceptors to the CNS is the


The spinal tract that relays information concerning pain and temperature to the CNS is the

lateral spinothalamic.

The spinal tract that relays information concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the

anterior spinothalamic.

The afferent neuron that carries the sensation to the CNS is a ________ neuron.

first order

Which ascending tract carries the sensations for fine touch and vibration?

posterior (dorsal) column

The cerebellum adjusts motor activity in response to all of the following, except

touch sensations.

The spinal tract that unconsciously maintains balance and muscle tone is the ________ tract.


The pyramidal system provides

voluntary control over skeletal muscles.

The corticospinal system is often referred to as the

pyramidal system.

Based on the motor homunculus, which of the following body regions has the largest motor units?


A brain injury to a patient results in facial paralysis. Which descending tract is most likely affected?

corticobulbar tract

Damage to the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex would directly affect

voluntary motor activity.

The cerebellum relies on information from

the inner ear as movements are under way.
motor commands from upper motor neurons.
the eyes.
proprioceptive sensations.
all of the above

Conscious and subconscious motor commands control skeletal muscles by traveling over the

corticospinal pathway.
medial pathway.
lateral pathway.
any of the above

________ is a rare condition in which the brain fails to develop at levels above the mesencephalon or inferior part of the diencephalon.


Destruction of or damage to a lower motor neuron in the somatic nervous system produces

flaccid paralysis of its muscle fibers (motor unit).

The cerebellum

functions to maintain proper posture and equilibrium.
if damaged leads to uncoordinated and jerky movements.
receives input from the motor cortex and basal ganglia.
compares intended movement to actual movement.
has all these characteristics

Upper motor neurons are located in the

both precentral gyrus and brain stem.

If the primary motor cortex is destroyed, fine control of movement will be lost, but movement may not be lost completely because the medial and lateral pathways can still provide coarse motor control.

Both parts of the statements are true.

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