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Meat Fab Review
Terms in this set (92)
What does meat consist of?
1) lean muscle tissue
4) Connective Tissues
What are the two basic types of muscle fibers?
Smooth and Skeletal
What are skeletal muscles?
They are typically meat muscles. They attach to bone to allow the animal to move and perform specific tasks.
What are smooth muscles?
They are found in the digestive and circulatory systems and are primarily involuntary. They are generally found in the offal products.
What is Cutability
Measure of amount of usable meat from carcass
Silver, clearish or white. Makes up tendons, silverskin, and holds together muscle bundles. Provides flavor in moist cooked items but removed on dry cooked meats
Connective Tissue-Bone Connectives
Bone sheath, pinkish or white. Very tough, does not break down well even in moist cooking. Should be removed.
Yellow, rubber band - like, very tough and unusable
Subprimals and their trimmed versions are known as hotel, restaurant, and institution cuts
Why do we do Meat inspection?
Official examination of a slaughtered animal to establish whether it's meat is fit or unfit for human consumption.
What is Meat grading?
A quality grade is a composite evaluation of factors that affect palatability of meat (tenderness, juiciness, and flavor) these factors include carcass maturity, firmness, texture, and color of lean, and the amount and distribution of marbling within the lean. Beef carcass quality grading is based on degree of marbling and degree of maturity
What is USDA Grading Criteria for Quality?
Color of lean muscle
Marbling/ Intramuscular Fat
Age / Bone ossiffication
Size and texture of the R.E.A.
( Rib Eye Area)
Acceptable to the taste; sufficiently agreeable in flavor to be eaten.
In basic terms, define what is meat?
Mostly the tissue of an animal; the flesh of an animal used as food.
What are the components of a meat carcass?
The proportions of muscle, fat, and bone
What is the basic composition of beef?
The muscle is approximately 75% water and 20% protein with the remaining 5% representing a combination of fat, carbohydrate and minerals
What is the importance of quality and yield grading?
Federal grading is voluntary. These grades are used to divide beef carcasses into uniform groups so the product can be easily described and understood by both buyers and sellers.
The important factors in yield grade determination are amount of fat, muscle development, and carcass size
How is quality grading different from yield grading?
Beef carcass quality grading is based on degree of marbling and degree of maturity
Yield grades estimate the amount of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts from the high value parts of the carcass.
What are the Factors for Beef Program Selection?
Marbling (amount and texture)
What does quality grading judge?
Palatability, Taste, Tenderness
Color of lean muscle
Fat / marbling
What does yield grading judge?
Fat to lean of entire carcass
Meat to bone ratio (conformation)
Cutability ( how much is useable)
Only applicable on beef and lamb
What are the beef yield grades?
To determine tenderness, what is the Carcass Physiological Maturity Scores and Approximate Ages for beef?
A-9-30 mos, B 30-42 mos, C 42-72 mos, D 72-96 mos and E 96+
Beef Quality Grades?
Prime, Choice, and Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility, Cutter and Canner
the superior grade with amazing tenderness, juiciness, flavor and fine texture. It has the highest degree of fat marbling
the second highest graded beef. It has less fat marbling than Prime. a quality steak particularly if it is a cut that is derived from the loin and rib areas of the beef such as a tenderloin filet or rib steak. Generally will be less tender, juicy and flavorful with a slightly more coarse texture versus Prime.
Has a lower marbling score. Tougher, less juicy and less flavorful since it is leaner that Prime and Choice
Why dry age beef?
The key effect of dry aging is the concentration and saturation of the natural flavor.
Why are meat inspections done and who inspects it?
Meats are inspected and deemed WHOLESOME ! (fit for consumption) U.S. Dept of Agriculture (Food Safety Inspection Service) MANDATORY for all meats (some game products may be exempt)
Motion muscles (coarse, fiber, flavorful) - slow or moist cooking methods
Braise, Stew, Steam, Boil
Sedentary muscles (fine fibers) - cook to temperature: (ex Med Rare) cooking methods
Grill, Fry, Roast, Bake, Broil, Saute`
What are the Pros and cons of Primals Cuts?
Pro-Initial Price Inexpensive
Pro- Custom cut, "out of the box"
Con-Storage and fabrication space required
What are the Pros and Cons of Portion Cuts?
Pro and Con-Inventory control
What are the beef primals?
Round, Loin, Rib and Chuck.
Minor primals for beef?
Plate, brisket and foreshank
What are the subprimals for beef round?
Shank, Top Round (Inside) Knuckle, Bottom Round (Outside), Eye Round, Heel, and Gooseneck
What are the subprimals of beef loin?
Sirloin, Striploin, Tenderloin, Flank and Shortloin
What are the subprimals for beef rib?
Rib eye (bone in or out)
What are the subprimals for beef chuck?
Shoulder clod, chuck roll, chuck tender, and short ribs.
What are the beef loin bones?
Hip, Tail, Feather, Finger, 13th rib bone and Chine.
What are the Beef / Quality Grades-Youthful "A" category?
What are the Beef / Quality Grades-Mature animals?
Standard / No Roll
What are Certified Beef Programs?
Company name brands and USDA certification programs can ensure a certain quality level
Which cow has extreme marbling scores and are considered the world's finest breed?
What are the 3 bloodlines for Wagyu?
Tajima, Kedaka and Fujiyoshi
What are the 4 categories of veal?
Bob Veal / Baby Veal - 3days to 2weeks
Veal / formula fed "Nature" veal - 5- 6 months
Pasture Raised, Free Range - 4 months
Calves / Red veal- fed grass, grain- 7- 10 months
Which primary veal is used for breeding?
What are the Quality Grades for Veal?
(Company branding can enhance quality)
Where is veal initially cut?
Between Hindsaddle and Foresaddle
What is the finest veal cut for chops and roasting?
Veal Hotel rack also known as Rib of Veal. Traditionally it contains 7 ribs but can be purchased with 6.
Square Cut Chuck or Shoulder, Hotel Rack, Loin, Leg
What are the subprimal/HRI cuts for Legs of Veal?
A. Hind Shank
B. Top/Inside Round
C. Bottom/Outside Round
D. Eye Round
H. Tenderloin Butt
What are the subprimal/HRI cuts for Veal Loins?
A. Full loin/Saddle, unsplit
B. Trimmed loin/Split (Shortloin)
C. Striploin (Bone in loin)
D. Striploin boneless (Boneless loin)
What are the subprimal/HRI cuts for Veal Hotel Rack?
A. Veal hotel rack, unsplit
B. Veal hotel rack, split and chined
C. Veal hotel rack, chop or roast ready
D. Veal rack, Frenched
E. Boneless veal rib eye
What are the subprimal/HRI cuts for Veal Square Cut Shoulder?
A. Veal square cut shoulder, boneless
B. Veal shoulder clod, trimmed and untrimmed
C. Veal neck roast
D. Veal eye chuck roll
E. Veal chuck/scotch tender
What are the Veal Market Form?
A. Breast of Veal
What is the method for cutting cutlets?
(It comes from the Veal Top Round)
1. Establish the grain direction
2. Place palm over area to be cut
3. Set knife at top of cutlet and pinch the meat into the knife
4. Place plastic wrap over the cutlet and pound lightly
What are the classes of pork?
Suckling Pig - Roast Whole 18- 35lbs
Roasting Pigs - Roast whole 40 - 150 lbs
Market Style Hogs - cut for pork primals 170 -200 lbs. Barrow / Gilt
Sow/ Boar - Breeding pigs (genetics)
What are the evaluation and grading of Pork?
Thickness of the fatback, size and shape of loin eye, length of loin in general, width and muscling of ham and shoulder, and width and thickness of belly section. The is no USDA grading system, just "acceptable" or "unacceptable".
What are the USDA Quality Grades and carcass yield for pork?
Which hogs have high quality flavor and ability to marble well?
Bershire. In Japan it is known as Kurobuta pork, where it is as much prized as kobe beef.
What hog is the most recorded breed in the U.S.?
Pale, Soft, Exudative
What is Enhanced Pork?
- pumped with a solution of water, sodium phosphate, flavorings.
- Increases moisture / tenderness / weight
- Can decreases flavor or add saltiness
- Not "cured" ( white when cooked)
Ham, Loin, Boston Butt, Picnic, Belly with spare ribs.
What are the HRI cuts for Pork Loin?
Whole Primal Pork Loin
Centercut loin , 8 - 11 rib
Baby Back Ribs
How is ham wet or brine cured?
They inject it with a brine solution or soak it in salt brine.
What are pork spare ribs?
Spare ribs are the full belly ribs with a section of the "Brisket" bone attached.
What are St Louis ribs?
St. Louis ribs are the same but the sternum or brisket is removed. This adds value.
What are baby back ribs?
Baby backs are the ribs from the loin area. And are considered the best quality.
What are the basic bones of ham?
Femur, aitch, kneecap and portion of the shank.
What does Frenched mean?
Exposing the end of a rib bone for presentation.
How is ham dry cured?
They are smoked or peppered and require soaking to release some of the heavy salt flavor before using. Others require an exacting procedure of salting and storing for many months to create the delicate flavor.
How many portions will an entire veal leg yield?
How do you make sausage?
You need fat to lean ratio of 30%-70%.
1. Weight seasoning and mix together
2. Mix fat to lean trimming and sprinkle seasoning
3. Grind through med coarse die
4. Grind again through 1/8 die
5. Mix sausage with paddle for 1 min gradually adding ice water.
6. Test by pan searing
What are the lamb grades?
What are the classes of lamb?
Hot house/baby lamb 20 #s, will not find in U.S. market
Spring lamb 30-40#.
Yearling lamb 60-90#s
Mutton-older lamb, usually not found
What are the lamb grades?
1- Leanest, usually very young
2- Considered best buy
3- Also considered normal and best buy
4- Fatty and considered expensive, often found on larger, high-quality lamb
5- Very fatty; wasteful
How is lamb graded in New Zealand?
According to carcass weight and fat scores
How is lamb graded in Australia?
According to guidelines set up by Meat and Livestock Australia LTD, a private concern that grades meat for export.
What are the primal cuts of lamb?
Square Cut Chuck (Shoulder), Hotel Rack, Loin and Leg
What are the market forms of lamb?
Breast and Foreshank
What is the procedure for BRT leg of lamb?
1. Cut away the flank top
2. Loosen tenderloin
3. Cut along aitch bone through the ball and socket joint. Be aware of the small hook-shaped bone near top round
4. Remove shank
5. Remove knee cap
6.Take out small fat clod which contains gland
What are the subprimals for leg of lamb?
Pre cut kabobs
What are the subprimals for loin of lamb?
Trimmed loin/saddle split
Loin Chops, single/double
What are the subprimals for Rack of lamb?
Hotel rack/split and chinned
What are the subprimals for Chuck/shoulder of lamb?
Bone in (primal)
Breast/ribs (denver ribs)
What lamb is a high quality meat breed?
What lamb originates from the U.S.?
What is the quality grading for poultry?
A,B C. The criteria is based on age, maturity, weight, conformation, fleshing and appearance.
What temp should pork and poultry be cooked to?
Beef, lamb and veal should be cooked to what temp?
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