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80 terms

Psychopharmacology Questions

STUDY
PLAY
what would happen as a result to a lesion in the medial hypothalamus?
aggression, hyperphagia (overeating, leading to obesity)
4 stages of neural development
Proliferation, Migration, Differentiation, Myelination
Korsakoffs produces__________. The damage is in the________________.
retrograde and anterograde amnesia, apathy, confabulation
thalamus
If you mix ________with alchohol, it could be fatal.
anxiolytics (benzo's) diazapaAM, alprazofAM, chlordiazepoxide
Norepinephrine mediates
fight or flight (sympathetic)
Dopamine is responsible for
voluntary movement and mood
Geschwind Galaburda hypothesis
high levels of testosterone predispose individual to dyslexia, childhood allergies, stuttering, L handedness, good R hemisphere (spatial abilities, creative, face recognition, visual imagery)
_________ is used to tx alcohol abuse
Naltrexone
Adv. of SSRI over tri's
quicker onset, less likely to produce cognitive and anticholinergic side effects
Lesions in the amygdala are associated with
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome (reduced fear and aggression, altered dietary habits, psychic blindness-can't recognize the significance objects or situations)
Where to absence seizures originate? another name for absence?
thalmus/petit mal
temporal lobe functions
receptive language, memory, emotion
meds for nicotine dependence and smoking cessation
buproprion, varenicline, nicotine replacement interventions
damage to right postcentral gyrus can result in
Where is the postcentral gyrus?
numbness in the left hand and contralteral neglect, which includes the left visual field

parietal lobe
What is the function of the cingulate gyrus?
acts as a satisfaction center and mediates the feelings of satisfaction that follow eating and sex
EMG Biofeedback is useful in treating _______headaches. Thermal biofeedback is useful for__________headaches.
tension, migraine
Symptoms of morphine withdrawal
Flu-like symptoms
vomit, nausea, diarrhea, cramping, running nose and eyes, insomnia
Damage to the right frontal lobe causes
disinhibition
impulsiveness
happy indifference
jocularity (habitually jolly)
Damage the left frontal lobe causes
reduced speech
depression
apathy
The right hemisphere mediates _______ emotions and damage can cause_________.
indifference, apathy, undue cheerfulness
Akathisia-define
side effect of _____.
antipsychotics
inability to sit sit still, constant pacing, restlessness
Parkinsons
dysarthria-define
side effect of
antipsychotics
imperfect articulation of speech (PROBLEMS WITH THE MUSCLES THAT MAKE YOU TALK, DIFFICULT TO PRODUCE WORDS)
akinesia-define
side effect of
symptom of
complete or almost complete loss of movement
antipsychotics
transcortical aphasia is distinguished from the other types of aphasia because
you can repeat words, phrases, or sentences
bilateral destruction of the hippo, amygdala, and medial temporal lobes produces what?
severe, permanent anterograde amnesia
name the universal emotions
anger, happy, jealous, surprise, fear, disgust
probability of a parent with Huntington's passing the disorder to an offspring is ________% Why??
50%
Because it is a dominant, autosomal disorder
brain areas associated with declarative memory
temporal lobe and hippocampus

also diencephalon, peripheral cortex, amygdala, cortex
using similar phonemes instead of the specific words required
paraphasias
functions of the left hemisphere
logic, language, analytical thinking, positive emotions
functions of the right hemisphere
visual-spatial, creativity, recognizing faces, negative emotions
asomatognosia
can't recognize parts of own body
ataxia
slurred speech, severe tremors, loss of balance (lack of coordination of muscle movements)
anosognosia
inability to recognize one's own impairment
hypersthesia
abnormal sensitivity to sensation
A stroke here would limit basic primal drives or may make patients lose their natural inhibitions
limbic system--responsible for primal urges and emotions that ensure self-preservation such as hunger, rage, and sexual desire
Parkinsons is characterized by
tremor, rigidity, and akinesia (slowness of movement)
basal ganglia
code and relay info associated with the control of voluntary movement and play a role in motor learning, motoric expressions of emotions, and sensorimotor functioning
symptoms of Huntingtons
chorea (irregular, rapid, uncontrolled, involuntary, excessive movement)
dementia (50%)
athetosis (condition in which there is a constant succession of slow, writhing, involuntary movements of flexion, extension, pronation, and supination of the fingers)
stages of Huntingtons
affective
motor
cognitive
Huntingtons is caused by
a degeneration of neurons in the CAUDATE NUCLEUS of the basal ganglia
Neurotransmitters involved with Huntingtons
ACH
Gaba
dopamine
Parkinsons is caused by
not enough dopamine, so you increase dopamine; also excessive ACH, you could block the effects of ACH (Increase dopamine, reduce ACH)
brain parts compromised in Parkinsons
substantia niagra/basal ganglia
hypothalamus
involved in hunger and thirst, sex, sleep, body temperature, movement, emotional reactions
regulates the body's homeostasis (temp., fluid and electrolyte balance, weight, blood pressure)
translates emotions into physical response such as racing heart and shallow breathing
contains the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) which controls the body's circadian rhythms (sleep/wake cycle)
Function of GABA
inhibitory role
associated with eating, sleep, anxiety, and seizure disorders
(Low-anxiety, Parkinson's)
(Deficits-Huntington's Chorea)
Function of glutamate
excitatory, assoc with learning, memory, long term potentiation
Pseudodepression and Pseudopsychopathy
damage where?
define
damage to the frontal lobe
Pseudo-depression-apathy, lack of drive, little verbal output, inability to plan and focus attention
Pseudo-psychopathy-sexual disinhibition, coarse language, peculiar and facetious sense of humor, inappropriate social behavior, lack of concern for others
Involved in the control of endocrine and regulates circadian rhythm (SCN)
hypothalamus
_______is used for OCD (best tx)
clomipramine
tri antidepressant assoc with:
tx of ADHD
enuresis
decreasing the desire to binge and purge
imipramine
pain meds
amitripyline
patch for depression
seiegiline
don't mix a SSRI or tricyclic with a
MAOI
what class of antidepressants are lethal in overdose?
the tricyclics are cardiotoxic
can't mix an MAOI with what foods?
foods with tyramine beer, wine, aged cheese, soy, some nuts, avacado, tomato, packaged soup
meds for headaches
amitripyline
#1 side effect of fluextine
sex dysfunction
EMG
electromyogram
measures impulses in the muscles and indicated degree of relaxation/tension (for stress, headaches, chronic pain, muscle stiffness, healing muscles, incontinence, urinary urgency)
EEG
electroencephalogram
info on brainwave activity and patterns
(for adhd, depression, epilepsy, reduce impulsivity, promote recovery, head injury, and strokes)
another name for antipsychotics
NEUROLEPTICS
pheno
associated with anxiety, mood, eating, sleep, arousal, temperature regulation, aggression, modulation of pain and headaches
serotonin
regulates voluntary movement, learning, memory, mediates sexual behavior, REM sleep, and the sleep-wake cycle
AcH
paresthesia
sensation of tingling, prickling
"feelings of pins and needles" or a limb "falling asleep"
Prefrontal is responsible for what types of memory
short term
episodic
prospective memory
working memory
The midbrain contains the RAS. What is the RAS responsible for?
plays a role in sleep and wakefulness
sensation of pain and touch
respiration
control of reflexes
Glutamate is a neurotransmitter responsible for
cognitive abililites(learning, memory) which are correlated with alchol abuse
alexia
reading disability (word blindness) caused by an acqured brain lesion
constructional apraxia
can't draw pictures
can't copy simple figues
can't arrange blocks in a pattern
ideomotor apraxia
cannot carry out a command to perform a particular movement (e.g., blow out a candle)
damage to the orbiofronal cortex results in
The orbitifrontal is part of the
altered emotions
prefrontal cortex (the prefrontal cortex is associated with emotions!)
frontal lobe functions
emotion
memory
language
higher cognitive processes (executive functioning)
parietal lobe functions
somatosensory cortex (mediates pain, pressure, temperature, taste, proprioception) spatial relationships, ability to perform complex purposeful movement
occipital lobe function
visual perception and sensations
temproal lobe function
auditory sensation and perception (receptive)
synesthesia
cross modal perception (hear colors or taste shapes)
two disorders associated with the malfunctioning of the pancreas
diabetes mellitus (pancreas fails to secret insulin)
hypoglycemia (pancreas over secretes insulin)
dysprosody
speech disorder affecting the rhythm of speech and the pronunciation of words
anomia
aphasia characterized by impaired ability to recall words or names (problem with word finding)
algoia
inability to speak becasue of mental deficiency, mental confusion, or aphasia