How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

83 terms

Bones and Skeletal Tissue

STUDY
PLAY
Skeletal Cartilage
Contains no blood vessels or nerves
Skeletal cartilage
surrounded by the perichondrium
hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
three types of skeletal cartilage
Hyaline cartilage
provides support flexibility and resilience
Hyaline cartilage
most abundant skeletal cartilage
Articular Hyaline Cartilage
covers the ends of long bones
Costal Hyaline cartilage
connects the ribs to the sternum
respiratory hyaline cartilage
makes up larynx
nasal hyaline cartilage
supports the nose
elastic cartilage
similar to hyaline cartilage, but contains elastic fibers
elastic cartilage
found in the external ear and the epiglottis
fibrocartilage
highly compressed with great tensile strength
fibrocartilage
contains collagen fibers
fibrocartilage
found in menisci of the knee and intervertebral disks
Appositional, Interstitial
two ways cartilage grows
Appositional growth
cells in perichondrium secrete matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
Interstitial growth
lacunae bound chondrocytes inside cartilage divide and secrete new matrix, expanding from within
During normal bone growth, during old age
When does calcification occur?
Axial, appendicular
Two skeletons of the body
Axial Skeleton
bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
appendicular skeleton
bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder, and hip
Long bones
longer than they are wide
Humerus
example of a long bone
Short bones
cube shaped bones of the wrist and ankle
short bones
bones that form within tendons (patella)
Flat bones
thin flattened, and a bit curved
sternum
example of flat bone
irregular bones
bones with complicated shapes
vertebrae
example of irregular bone
Support, mineral storage, protection, movement, blood cell formation
5 functions of bones
sites of attachment, joint surfaces, conduits for blood vessels and nerves
bone markings serve as...
projections
sites of muscle and ligament attachment
tuberosity
a knoblike process usually larger than a tubercle
crest
narrow ridge of bone
trochanter
Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (the only examples are on the femur)
line
a line
turbercle
small, rounded elevation on bone
epicondyle
raised area above a condyle
spine
any pointed projection
process
a natural prolongation or projection from a part of an organism either animal or plant
head
round "headlike" structure
facet
smooth, nearly flat articular surface
condyle
a round bump on a bone where it forms a joint with another bone
ramus
armlike bar of bone
meatus
canal-like passageway
sinus
any of various air-filled cavities especially in the bones of the skull
fossa
a concavity in a surface (especially an anatomical depression)
groove
any furrow or channel on a bodily structure or part
fissure
a long narrow opening
foramen
Round or oval opening through a bone
compact bone, spongy bone
textures of bone
compact bone
dense outer layer of bone
spongy bone
honeycomb of trabeculae filled with yellow bone marrow
diaphysis, epiphysis
long bones consist of two parts
diaphysis
tubular shaft that forms the axis of long bones
diaphysis
composed of compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity
medullary cavity
contains the yellow bone marrow (Fat)
Epiphysis
expanded ends of long bones
epiphysis
exterior is compact bone, interior is spongy bone
epiphysis
joint surface is covered with articular cartilage
epiphyseal line
separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis
periosteum, endosteum
two bone membranes
periosteum
double layered protective membrane on the outside of the bone
dense connective tissue
outer layer of periosteum is made of
osteoblasts, osteoclasts
inner osteogenic layer of periosteum is made of
nerve fibers, blood, lymphatic vessels
periosteum supplied with
nutrient foramina
nutrients enter the bone via
sharpey's fibers
periosteum secured to the bone by
endosteum
delicate membrane covering internal surfaces of the bone.
short, irregular, flat bones
thin plates of periosteum covered compact bone on the outside, with endosteum covered spongy bone on the inside
Short, irregular, flat bones
have no diaphysis or epiphyses
short, irregular, flat bones
contain bone marrow between the trabeculae
hematopoietic tissue
red marrow
medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone
hematopoietic tissue in infants is found:
diploe of flat bones, head of the femur, head of the humerus
red marrow in adults
haversian system
another word for osteon
osteon
another word for haversian system
lamella
weight bearing, column like matrix tubes composed mainly of collagen
haversian or central canal
central channel containing blood vessels and nerves
volkmann's canals
channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the haverisan canal
osteocytes
mature bone cells
lacunae
small cavity in bone that contain osteocytes
canaliculi
hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal