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made it possible to sail w/out losing bearings
-iron needles rubbed on lodestone magnetized+turn toward north if floated on water


astronomy and geometry--- sailors determine height of stars+planets
-calculate latitude

Reasons for Exploration

Technological Advances
Economic Changes
Political Changes
Social Changes

Technological Advances

Map Making
Navigation Instruments
New Ships/Canon
Economic Changes

Economic Advances

-Standardized Money (Ducat/Floria)
-Joint-Stock Companies=Merchants combined resources in this new type of business, got money by selling stocks (shares) to investor

Political Advances

-Favorable balance of trade=strengthened country and weakened rivals who paid in metals for goods


theory stating that a gov't should do all it could to increase country's wealth


grants of money used by gov't to establish industries

Social Changes

-Population Increase
-Starting a new life in colonies
-Quick profit from colonies
-Puritans,Huguentos escape persecution
-Missionaries to spread Christianity


long ships propelled by slaves, carried most Euro trade before and during 1400s

Sailing ships

traders used these in deep- ocean trenches, could only travel in wind direction until late 1400s,

Ship Improvements (Spain and Portugal)

reduced ship width, moved rudder (steering device) to stern (rear), allowed ships to sail against wind

Business improv

some cases to accommodate exploration, others because old methods bad, some changes so extensive- 1400 to 1750= Commercial Revolutio

Baldassare Castiglione

Italian diplomat and writer, wrote Book of the Courtier, gave new behavior idea as nobles lost military role

Lorenzo Medici

Patron of arts who influenced florence artistic awakening


most noticeable characteristic of renaissance painting, lifelike details

Sofonisba Anguissola

successful woman artist, accepted as pursuit of womanly virtue, best known for self portraits and Philip II portrait

Leonardo da Vinci

painter, sculptor, engineer, architect, inventor, used sci experiments to enhance painting, anatomy study helped draw human, math organized space, most famous for Mona Lisa, 1 of 4 greatest contributors to art

Michelangelo Buonarroti

frescoes on ceiling of Sistine chapel, 1 of 4 greatest contributors to art, massive dignity suggested by paintings/carvings of biblical ppl, wrote poetry, architect who helped design St. Peter's Basilica in Rome


pope hired to beautify Vatican w/ frescoes, painted great madonnas, 1 of 4 greatest contributors to art


important realist painter, very lifelike


representations of Virgin Mary


1 of 4 greatest contributors to art, Holy Roman emperor sponsored his works, became 1 of 1st to get $ for paintings, made Assumption of the Virgin

The Northern Renaissance

Mtn. passes (Brenner, Great St Bernard), Danube R, Rhine R, Rhone R allowed ppl to get to N Europe- new ideas carried, printing helped ideas spread too

Johannes Gutenberg

from Mainz, Germany, 1st Euro to use movable type for books, made printing press for bibles

Desiderius Erasmus

Most influencial Humanist of N Europe, entered monestary when young but left to pursue classics studies, believed early Xianity existed in harmony w/ classical civilizationm published church spiritually lack criticisms (Most famous= Praise of Folly)

Tomas Moore

English humanist, wrote Utopia - criticized his society, described ideal 1, everyone equal and worked to help society, lived in harmony

William Shakespeare

Most prominent lit. figure of Renaissance, showed personality and emotions w/ great skill

Flemish School

Flanders, group painters that made own style

Pieter Brueghel

used paintings to criticize cruelty and intolerance of peasants he loved

Albrecht Durer

1st to see possibility of printed drawings in books

Hans Holbein the Younger

German, portrait emphasis reflects Renaissance interest in individual

The Protestant Reformation

humanists said church more interest in income and wanted emphasis on personal faith and spirituality, church ignored, religius revolution- split church in W Europe and made new ones

Johann Tetzel

monk sent to raise funds for St. Peter's Basilica building in N Germany, asked ppl to buy indulgences, his misuse appalled N humanists

Martin Luther

protested Tetzel's selling w/ 95 Theses, wanted to be monk but found church methods didnt help him overcome sin, made Lutheranism, considered self reformer, disagreed w/ doctrines, made own church doctine


simple faith that lead everyone to salvation

Lutheran Church

believed pope and bishop shouldnt tell people what to believe, ceremonies didnt counteract sins, priest had no special role in helping ppl to salvation, felt God viewed all w/ faith equal, "priesthood of all believers", 2 sacraments (baptism and communion) not 7

95 Theses

written by Luther to challenge Tetzel, posted on church door in 1517, about indulgences, sales declined, news spread

Pope Leo X

declared Luther heretic (for church and publications bashing church), excommunicated him

Diet of Worms

special meeting of rulers of the empire, Luther commanded to renounce ideas and refused--> became outlaw, weak gov't couldnt enforce Diet's ruling

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V

summoned Luther to Imperial Diet of Worms to put punishment in effect, opposed Luther's doctrine and didnt want Lutheranism to spread, sent armies against protestants

Frederick the Wise

Elector of Saxony, protected Luther and sheltered him, under protection he translated Bible to German


all Luther followers and later reformers, due to princes protested emp's treatment of Luther

Peace of Ausburg

1555, Charles V's compromise w/ protestant Princes, said each German ruler chose own religion for state, subjects had to accept ruler's decision or leave

King Henry (Tudor Line)

caused break between England and Roman Cath. church, wanted to divorce wife Catherine of Aragon but Pope Clement VII refused, made him mad and made new Anglican Church

Pope Clement VII

refused to dissolve Henry's marriage due to troops led by Catherine's newphew Holy Roman Emp. Charles V that captured and sacked Rome

Huldrych Zwingli

Vicar @ cathedral in Zurich, stirred up reform in Switzerland when heard abt 95 theses, died iin battle between protestants and catholics

John Calvin

french protestant, carried on reform work in Switzerland, founded Protestant church, gave Calvinists code that united them and strengthened them against opposition, kept Luther's reliance on faith and placed emphasis on predestination


God decided at beginning of time who would be saved, predestined= the elect- made special community where follow highest standards


when Calvinism spread to France converts known as this, Cath. French monarchs considered tem a threat to national unity, defended selves in civil wars w/ Caths


gov't ruled by clergy claiming God's authority, citizens lives regulated to smallest detail, violation= severe punishment

Edict of Nantes

issued by King Henry IV, gave Huguenots worship freedom and some political rights

Counter Reformation (Catholic)

began in 1530s, 1st created to foster more spiritual outlook in Cath. church, but clarified doctrines and pursued aggressive campaign against Protestantism

Council of Trent

1545, church leaders summoned to Trent, Italy, banned indulgences sale, tightened clergy discipline, stressed ceremonies

Pope Paul III

began policy of reviving more spiritual outlook in Cath Church, appointed devout and learned bishops and cardinals, brought medieval inquisition to Rome

Pope Paul IV

made Index of Forbidden Books-list of books Catholics couldn't read


new orders, Society of Jesus, made by Ignatius de Layola, organized like military- discipline and strict obedience, became most effective to spread Catholicism

Scientific Revolution

thinking transformation from new way of investigation


used spells and formulas to change 1 thing to another

Scientific Method

inquiry that includes careful experiments and math to verify results and make logical deductions


made heliocentric theory but couldnt prove w/ available instruments and math

Principle of Doubt

nothing believed unless proven by math/ experiments


used math to test copernicus's theory, found planets didn't have circular orbits, only mathematicians understood proof


saw Jupiter's moons revolve around it w/ telescope- saw everything isnt centered on Earth, church disapproved because theory contradicted Bible, Spanish Inquisition made him renounce his beliefs, proved that all objects fall w/ same speed

Andrea Vesalius

Flemish scientist, pioneered anatomy study

William Harvey

English physicianm used lab experiments to describe blood circulation, how heart works, and blood vessel function

Rene Descartes

1 of most influencial advocates of sci French philosopher and scientist, went to Jesuit college, believed 1 should question before assuming

Francis Bacon

English philosopher, thought theories built on observations and experiments, relied on proofs, believed pursuit of science enrich human life lot


made laws of motion and universal gravitation- explained movements of objects and planets

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

German, develped calculus

Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek

Dutch scientist, used microscope to discover bacteria

Robert Hooke

English, 1st to identify cells as living matter

Robert Boyle

Anglo- Irish scientist, founder of modern chemistry

Joseph Priestly

English chemist, discovered oxygen (didnt name it Antoine Lavosier did)

Antoine Lavoisier

Showed fire not element, proved was reaction, demonstrated law of conservation of matter


important realist painterm used light/shadows to give depth effect

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