76 terms

Renaissance and Reformation, Exploration, Scientific Revolution

made it possible to sail w/out losing bearings
-iron needles rubbed on lodestone magnetized+turn toward north if floated on water
astronomy and geometry--- sailors determine height of stars+planets
-calculate latitude
Reasons for Exploration
Technological Advances
Economic Changes
Political Changes
Social Changes
Technological Advances
Map Making
Navigation Instruments
New Ships/Canon
Economic Changes
Economic Advances
-Standardized Money (Ducat/Floria)
-Joint-Stock Companies=Merchants combined resources in this new type of business, got money by selling stocks (shares) to investor
Political Advances
-Favorable balance of trade=strengthened country and weakened rivals who paid in metals for goods
theory stating that a gov't should do all it could to increase country's wealth
grants of money used by gov't to establish industries
Social Changes
-Population Increase
-Starting a new life in colonies
-Quick profit from colonies
-Puritans,Huguentos escape persecution
-Missionaries to spread Christianity
long ships propelled by slaves, carried most Euro trade before and during 1400s
Sailing ships
traders used these in deep- ocean trenches, could only travel in wind direction until late 1400s,
Ship Improvements (Spain and Portugal)
reduced ship width, moved rudder (steering device) to stern (rear), allowed ships to sail against wind
Business improv
some cases to accommodate exploration, others because old methods bad, some changes so extensive- 1400 to 1750= Commercial Revolutio
Baldassare Castiglione
Italian diplomat and writer, wrote Book of the Courtier, gave new behavior idea as nobles lost military role
Lorenzo Medici
Patron of arts who influenced florence artistic awakening
most noticeable characteristic of renaissance painting, lifelike details
Sofonisba Anguissola
successful woman artist, accepted as pursuit of womanly virtue, best known for self portraits and Philip II portrait
Leonardo da Vinci
painter, sculptor, engineer, architect, inventor, used sci experiments to enhance painting, anatomy study helped draw human, math organized space, most famous for Mona Lisa, 1 of 4 greatest contributors to art
Michelangelo Buonarroti
frescoes on ceiling of Sistine chapel, 1 of 4 greatest contributors to art, massive dignity suggested by paintings/carvings of biblical ppl, wrote poetry, architect who helped design St. Peter's Basilica in Rome
pope hired to beautify Vatican w/ frescoes, painted great madonnas, 1 of 4 greatest contributors to art
important realist painter, very lifelike
representations of Virgin Mary
1 of 4 greatest contributors to art, Holy Roman emperor sponsored his works, became 1 of 1st to get $ for paintings, made Assumption of the Virgin
The Northern Renaissance
Mtn. passes (Brenner, Great St Bernard), Danube R, Rhine R, Rhone R allowed ppl to get to N Europe- new ideas carried, printing helped ideas spread too
Johannes Gutenberg
from Mainz, Germany, 1st Euro to use movable type for books, made printing press for bibles
Desiderius Erasmus
Most influencial Humanist of N Europe, entered monestary when young but left to pursue classics studies, believed early Xianity existed in harmony w/ classical civilizationm published church spiritually lack criticisms (Most famous= Praise of Folly)
Tomas Moore
English humanist, wrote Utopia - criticized his society, described ideal 1, everyone equal and worked to help society, lived in harmony
William Shakespeare
Most prominent lit. figure of Renaissance, showed personality and emotions w/ great skill
Flemish School
Flanders, group painters that made own style
Pieter Brueghel
used paintings to criticize cruelty and intolerance of peasants he loved
Albrecht Durer
1st to see possibility of printed drawings in books
Hans Holbein the Younger
German, portrait emphasis reflects Renaissance interest in individual
The Protestant Reformation
humanists said church more interest in income and wanted emphasis on personal faith and spirituality, church ignored, religius revolution- split church in W Europe and made new ones
Johann Tetzel
monk sent to raise funds for St. Peter's Basilica building in N Germany, asked ppl to buy indulgences, his misuse appalled N humanists
Martin Luther
protested Tetzel's selling w/ 95 Theses, wanted to be monk but found church methods didnt help him overcome sin, made Lutheranism, considered self reformer, disagreed w/ doctrines, made own church doctine
simple faith that lead everyone to salvation
Lutheran Church
believed pope and bishop shouldnt tell people what to believe, ceremonies didnt counteract sins, priest had no special role in helping ppl to salvation, felt God viewed all w/ faith equal, "priesthood of all believers", 2 sacraments (baptism and communion) not 7
95 Theses
written by Luther to challenge Tetzel, posted on church door in 1517, about indulgences, sales declined, news spread
Pope Leo X
declared Luther heretic (for church and publications bashing church), excommunicated him
Diet of Worms
special meeting of rulers of the empire, Luther commanded to renounce ideas and refused--> became outlaw, weak gov't couldnt enforce Diet's ruling
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
summoned Luther to Imperial Diet of Worms to put punishment in effect, opposed Luther's doctrine and didnt want Lutheranism to spread, sent armies against protestants
Frederick the Wise
Elector of Saxony, protected Luther and sheltered him, under protection he translated Bible to German
all Luther followers and later reformers, due to princes protested emp's treatment of Luther
Peace of Ausburg
1555, Charles V's compromise w/ protestant Princes, said each German ruler chose own religion for state, subjects had to accept ruler's decision or leave
King Henry (Tudor Line)
caused break between England and Roman Cath. church, wanted to divorce wife Catherine of Aragon but Pope Clement VII refused, made him mad and made new Anglican Church
Pope Clement VII
refused to dissolve Henry's marriage due to troops led by Catherine's newphew Holy Roman Emp. Charles V that captured and sacked Rome
Huldrych Zwingli
Vicar @ cathedral in Zurich, stirred up reform in Switzerland when heard abt 95 theses, died iin battle between protestants and catholics
John Calvin
french protestant, carried on reform work in Switzerland, founded Protestant church, gave Calvinists code that united them and strengthened them against opposition, kept Luther's reliance on faith and placed emphasis on predestination
God decided at beginning of time who would be saved, predestined= the elect- made special community where follow highest standards
when Calvinism spread to France converts known as this, Cath. French monarchs considered tem a threat to national unity, defended selves in civil wars w/ Caths
gov't ruled by clergy claiming God's authority, citizens lives regulated to smallest detail, violation= severe punishment
Edict of Nantes
issued by King Henry IV, gave Huguenots worship freedom and some political rights
Counter Reformation (Catholic)
began in 1530s, 1st created to foster more spiritual outlook in Cath. church, but clarified doctrines and pursued aggressive campaign against Protestantism
Council of Trent
1545, church leaders summoned to Trent, Italy, banned indulgences sale, tightened clergy discipline, stressed ceremonies
Pope Paul III
began policy of reviving more spiritual outlook in Cath Church, appointed devout and learned bishops and cardinals, brought medieval inquisition to Rome
Pope Paul IV
made Index of Forbidden Books-list of books Catholics couldn't read
new orders, Society of Jesus, made by Ignatius de Layola, organized like military- discipline and strict obedience, became most effective to spread Catholicism
Scientific Revolution
thinking transformation from new way of investigation
used spells and formulas to change 1 thing to another
Scientific Method
inquiry that includes careful experiments and math to verify results and make logical deductions
made heliocentric theory but couldnt prove w/ available instruments and math
Principle of Doubt
nothing believed unless proven by math/ experiments
used math to test copernicus's theory, found planets didn't have circular orbits, only mathematicians understood proof
saw Jupiter's moons revolve around it w/ telescope- saw everything isnt centered on Earth, church disapproved because theory contradicted Bible, Spanish Inquisition made him renounce his beliefs, proved that all objects fall w/ same speed
Andrea Vesalius
Flemish scientist, pioneered anatomy study
William Harvey
English physicianm used lab experiments to describe blood circulation, how heart works, and blood vessel function
Rene Descartes
1 of most influencial advocates of sci French philosopher and scientist, went to Jesuit college, believed 1 should question before assuming
Francis Bacon
English philosopher, thought theories built on observations and experiments, relied on proofs, believed pursuit of science enrich human life lot
made laws of motion and universal gravitation- explained movements of objects and planets
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
German, develped calculus
Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek
Dutch scientist, used microscope to discover bacteria
Robert Hooke
English, 1st to identify cells as living matter
Robert Boyle
Anglo- Irish scientist, founder of modern chemistry
Joseph Priestly
English chemist, discovered oxygen (didnt name it Antoine Lavosier did)
Antoine Lavoisier
Showed fire not element, proved was reaction, demonstrated law of conservation of matter
important realist painterm used light/shadows to give depth effect