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The American Protective Association

supported immigration restrictions

Americans offered growing support for a free public education system

because they accepted the idea that a free government cannot function without educated citizens

In the 1890s, white collar positions for women as secretaries, department store clerks, and telephone operators were largely reserved for

native-born Americans

Most New Immigrants

tried to preserve their Old Country culture in America

Booker T. Washington believed that the key to political and civil rights for African Americans was

economic independence

The major factor in drawing country people off the farms and into the big cities was the

availability of industrial jobs

The place that offered the greatest opportunities for American women in the period 1865-1900 was

the big city

General Lewis Wallace's book, Ben Hur

defended Christianity against Darwinism

New Immigrant groups were regarded with special hostility by many nativist Americans because

their religious were distinctly different and some New Immigrants were politically radical

The vast majority of employed female workers in the late nineteenth century were


The new, research-oriented modern American university tended to

de-emphasize religious and moral instruction in favor of practical subjects and professional specialization

One of the early symbols of the dawning era of consumerism in urban America was

large department stores

The two late-nineteenth-century newspaper publishers whose competition for circulation fueled the rise of sensationalistic yellow journalism were

William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer

The intellectual development that seriously disturbed the churches in the late nineteenth century was the

biology of Charles Darwin

Besides serving immigrants and the poor in urban neighborhoods, settlement workers like Jane Addams and Florence Kelley

actively lobbied for social reforms like anti-sweatshop laws and child labor laws

The New Immigrants who came to the United States after 1880

were culturally different from previous immigrants

The Darwinian theory of organic evolution through natural selection affected American religion by

creating a split between religious conservatives who denied evolution and accommodationists who supported it

The pragmatists were a school of American philosophers who emphasized

the provisional and fallible nature of knowledge and the value of idea that solved problems

As a leader of the African American community, Booker T. Washington

promoted black self-help but did not challenge segregation

The post-Civil War era witnessed

an increase in compulsory school-attendance laws

The religious denomination that was most positively engaged with the New Immigration was

Roman Catholics

During industrialization, Americans increasingly

shared a common and standardized popular culture

While big city political bosses and their machines were often criticized, they proved necessary and effective in the new urban environment because

they were most effective in serving urban immigrants' needs than weak state or local governments

Black leader, Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois

demanded complete equality for African Americans

In the new urban environment, most liberal Protestants

rejected biblical literalism and adapted religious ideas to modern culture

The two immigrant ethnic groups who were most harshly treated in the mid to late nineteenth century were the

Irish and Chinese

In criticizing Booker T. Washington's educational emphasis on manual labor and industrial training, W.E.B. Du Bois emphasized instead that black education should concentrate on

an intellectually gifted talented tenth

The tremendously rapid growth of American cities in the post-Civil War decades was

a trend that affected Europe as well

The Morrill Act of 1862

granted public lands to states to support higher education

By 1900, advocates of women's suffrage

argued that the vote would enable women to extend their roles as mothers and homemakers to the public world.

Prominent Protestant pastors like Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden argued that

the Christian Gospel required that churches address poverty and other burning social issues of the day

The two major sources of funding for the powerful new American research universities were

state land grants and wealthy, philanthropic industrialists

Edward Bellamy's novel, "Looking Backward", inspired numerous late-nineteenth-century social reformers by

portraying an utopian American in the year 2000, where nationalized industry had solved all social problems

American newspapers expanded their circulation and public attention by

printing sensationalist stories of sex and scandal

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