70 terms

chapter 5 early childhood: psychosocial development

STUDY
PLAY
centration
A characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child focuses (centers) on one idea, excluding all others.
irreversibility
A characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child thinks that nothing can be undone. A thing cannot be restore to the way it was before a change occurred.
overregularization
The application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur, making the language seem more "regular" than it actually is.
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Vygotsky's term for the skills—cognitive as well as physical—that a person can exercise only with assistance, not yet independently.
apprentice in thinking
Vygotsky's term for a person whose cognition is stimulated and directed by older and more skilled members of society.
Piaget's Preoperational Thought
Piaget's term for cognitive development between the ages of 2 and 6; it includes language and imagination (which involve symbolic thought), but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible. Major advantage is symbolic thinking, particularly via language. The main deficiency is difficulty with logic.
4 Characteristics of Preoperational Thought
Centration, focus on appearance, static reasoning, and irreversibility. Each of these limits the child's thinking.
Focus on appearance
Ignores all attributes that are not apparent.
Vygotsky's Social Learning
He believed that every aspect of a child's cognitive development is embedded in the social context. Children learn because their mentors do the following: present challenges, offer assistance, provide instruction, encourage motivation.
Animism
The belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive. Arises from egocentrism.
Static reasoning
Thinks that nothing changes.
Irreversibility
Thinks that nothing can be undone. A thing cannot be restored to the way it was before a change occurred.
Brain Development
By age 2, a child's brain weighs 75% of what it will in adulthood. The brain reaches 90% of adult weight by age 6.
Body Changes
Become slimmer as lower body lengthens. Each year from age 2 to 6, children grow almost 3 in. in height and gain about 4.5 lbs. A healthy 6 year old: Weighs 40-50 lbs., is at least 3.5 ft., looks lean not chubby, has adult-like proportions.
Fast-mapping
The speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning.
Theory of Mind
A person's theory of what other people might be thinking. In order to have a theory of mind, children must realize that other people are not necessarily thinking the same thoughts are themselves. That realization is seldom achieved before age 4. Children can play jokes on other people and fell sorry for making someone else feel bad.
Scaffolding
Temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process.
kinship care
A form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child, usually a grandparent, becomes the approved caregiver.
foster care
A legal, publicly supported system in which a maltreated child is removed from the parents' custody and entrusted to another adult or family, which is reimbursed for expenses incurred in meeting the child's needs.
conservation
The principle that the amount of a substance remains the same (i.e., is conserved) when its appearance changes.
The long, thick band of nerve fibers that connects the right and left sides of the brain, called the _________ ________(1), grows and __________(2) pathways, but most of it occurs because of the ongoing process of __________(3).
1. corpus callosum
2. myelinates
3. both sides of the brain or body
Adults who (1) __________(right-/left-) handed tend to have a thicker corpus callosum, probably because as children they had a greater need to __________(2) both sides of the body in a right-handed world.
1. left-
2. coordinat
Physical changes in early childhood (2-6 years)
Fine....
Changes: (1)
Description: (2)
1. these small body movements are more difficult for young children because of an immature corpus callosum and prefrontal cortex and because of short, stubby fingers.
2. the lack of these skills is one reason 3-year-olds are not allowed in first grade.
The part of the brain that plays a crucial role in the expression and regulation of emotions is the ________ ________(1). Within this system is the _______(2), which registers emotions, particularly _________(3) and _______(4). Next to this area is the ________(5), which is a central processor of ________(6), especially of _______(7). Another structure in this brain region is the ________(8), which responds to signals from the other limbic system parts to produce _______(9) that activate other parts of the brain and body.
1. limbic system
2. amygdala
3. fear
4. anxiety
5. hippocampus
6. memory
7. locations
8. hypothalamus
9. hormones
Physical changes in early childhood (2-6 years)
Height( in inches)....
Changes: (1)
Description: (2)
1. 3 inches per year
2. The child is taller and thinner and, on average, 46 inches by 6 years of age.
Physical changes in early childhood (2-6 years)
Weight (in pounds)....
Changes: (1)
Description: (2)
1. children gain 4.5 pounds each year
2. because they are also growing rapidly, they are actually thinner than in earlier years.
Until about 1960, the concept of child maltreatment was mostly limited to rare and __________(1) outbursts of a disturbed stranger. Today, it is known that most perpetrator of maltreatment are the child's __________ ___________(2).
1. sudden
2. own caregivers
Intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of someone under age 18 defines child __________(1). Actions that are deliberately harmful to a child's well-being are classified as __________(2). A failure to act appropriately to meet a child's basic needs is classified as ___________(3).
1. maltreatment
2. abuse
3. neglect
The number of cases of ___________ ___________(1), in which authorities have been officially notified, is much (2) ________(higher/lower) than the number of unverified cases.
1. substantiated maltreatment
2. lower
Often the first sign of maltreatment is _________ _________, such as slow growth or lack of curiosity.
delayed development
In another type of foster care, called _______ _______(1), a relative of the maltreated child becomes the approved caregiver. A final option is __________(2).
1. kinship care
2. adoption
Once maltreatment has been substantiated, the first priority is _________ __________ for the child's long-term care.
permanency planning
Public policy measures and other efforts designed to prevent maltreatment from ever occurring are called _______ _______(1). an approach that focuses on spotting and treating the first symptoms of maltreatment is called _________ ________(2). Last-ditch measures, such as removing a child from an abusive home, jailing the perpetrator, and so forth, constitute _________ __________(3).
1. primary prevention
2. secondary prevention
3. tertiary prevention
Severely maltreated children suffer ______(1), _______(2), and _________(3) handicaps.

Describe other deficits of children who have been maltreated.
1. physiological
2. academic
3. social

Maltreated children tend to regard other people as hostile and exploitative, and thus are fearful, aggressive, and lonelier than other children. As adolescents and adults, they often use drugs or alcohol, choose unsupportive relationships, become victims or aggressors, dissociate, experience more emotional disorders and suicide attempts.
Often the first sign of maltreatment is _________ _________, such as slow growth or lack of curiosity.
delayed development
The number of cases of ___________ ___________(1), in which authorities have been officially notified, is much (2) ________(higher/lower) than the number of unverified cases.
1. substantiated maltreatment
2. lower
Intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of someone under age 18 defines child __________(1). Actions that are deliberately harmful to a child's well-being are classified as __________(2). A failure to act appropriately to meet a child's basic needs is classified as ___________(3).
1. maltreatment
2. abuse
3. neglect
Piaget referred to cognitive development between the ages of 2 and 6 as _______(1) intelligence. The child's verbal ability at this age enables _______(2) thinking.
1. preoperational
2. symbolic
Young children's understanding of the world tends to focus on (1)________(static/dynamic) reasoning, which means that they tend to think of their world as __________(2). Another characteristic of preoperational thinking is _________(3)---the inability to recognize that reversing a process will restore the original conditions from which the process began. The idea that amount is unaffected by changes in appearance is called _________(4).
1. static
2. unchanging
3. irreversibility
4. conservation
Yet another characteristic of preoperational thought is _________(1), or the belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive. Research demonstrates that many children simultaneously hold ideas that are both ________(2) and ________(3).
1. animism
2. rational
3. irrational
what is the most common cause of death of children worldwide?
accidents
Failure of the corpus callosum to develop normally results in serious disorders and is one of many possible causes of ________
autism
Increased activity of the________is one reason some young children have frightening nightmares or sudden terrors. Fear responses originating in the ________can overwhelm the functioning of the prefrontal cortex and disrupt reason
amygdala
The "just-right" phenomenon:
refers to young children's insistence on routine.
Environmental hazards such as pollution interfere with the development of
motor skills
The _________ allows communication between the two hemispheres of the brain.
corpus callosum
Which area is said to be the "executive" of the brain?
prefrontal cortex
Which of the following is crucial for the expression and regulation of emotions?
limbic system
Which of the following is a central processor of memory, especially of memory for locations?
hippocampus
Which characteristic of preoperational thought involves a child ignoring all attributes that are not apparent?
focus on appearance
After noticing that her 4-year-old brother was having difficulty putting a jigsaw puzzle together, Rose helped him with the task by praising his successes and helping him to recognize progress. From Vygotsky's perspective, this as an example of:
guided participation.
Vygotsky's term for the skills that a person can experience only with assistance, not yet independently, is:
zone of proximal development.
The __________ function of speech occurs during both formal instruction and casual conversation.
social mediation
Theory of mind:
typically appears rather suddenly
The process by which children develop an interconnected set of categories for words is called:
fast-mapping.
The tendency of a young child to apply rules of grammar when he or she should not is:
overregularization.
Child-centered programs recognize that children learn through play with other children. This is most consistent with the views of:
Vygotsky.
According to the text, what complicates the evaluation of Head Start programs?
Programs vary in length, curriculum, and goals.
Why do experts prefer the term "injury control" to the term "accident prevention"?
The use of the term "accident" suggests that no one is at fault and that certain events are inevitable.
We recognize today that child abuse or maltreatment is:
usually perpetrated by the child's parents or immediate relatives.
Which of the following is an example of tertiary prevention of child maltreatment?
removing an abused child from the home
myelination
The process in which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron.
lateralization
Literally, sidedness, referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity. The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa.
perseveration
The tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time.
amygdala
A tiny brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety.
hippocampus
A brain structure that is a central processor of memory, especially memory for locations.
hypothalamus
A brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body.
preoperational intelligence
Piaget's term for cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6; it includes language and imagination (which involve symbolic thought), but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible.
irreversibility
A characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child thinks that nothing can be undone. A thing cannot be restore to the way it was before a change occurred.
conservation
The principle that the amount of a substance remains the same (i.e., is conserved) when its appearance changes.
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