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-stage outside the cell cycle in which cells do not copy their DNA and do not prepare to divide
-many cells, such as mature nervous cells in the human body, are in this stage


-regulatory proteins whose levels in a cell go up and down to stimulate the onset of specific stages of the cell cycle


coiled DNA found in the nucleus of a dividing cell
-each chromosome represents one highly coiled DNA molecule
-chromosome are rod-shaped


a set of eight protein molecules in a cluster


protein molecules found in chromosomes that DNA is coiled around


DNA in a non-dividing cell that is not tightly coiled
-allows transcription/translation to occur in the cell between cell divisions

sister chromatids

result of DNA replication, genetically identical duplicate DNA molecule making up two halved of a doubled chromosome


structure which holds together in the sister chromatids in a doubled chromosome

homologous chromosomes

-chromosome pairs that contain the same genes
-look like all other chromosomes, but contain genes which are different than all other chromosomes

Sex chromosomes

determine gender


all other chromosomes

Diploid cell

-contains both halves of each homologous pair of chromosomes
-contains a full set of genetic information

Haploid cell

-contains only 1/2 of the full set of genetic information
-contains only one chromosome from each homologous pair


male gonads


female gonads


male gametes


female gametes

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