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17 terms

Bio- 9.2 Cell cycle

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G0
-stage outside the cell cycle in which cells do not copy their DNA and do not prepare to divide
-many cells, such as mature nervous cells in the human body, are in this stage
Cyclin
-regulatory proteins whose levels in a cell go up and down to stimulate the onset of specific stages of the cell cycle
Chromosomes
coiled DNA found in the nucleus of a dividing cell
-each chromosome represents one highly coiled DNA molecule
-chromosome are rod-shaped
Nucleosome
a set of eight protein molecules in a cluster
Histone
protein molecules found in chromosomes that DNA is coiled around
Chromatin
DNA in a non-dividing cell that is not tightly coiled
-allows transcription/translation to occur in the cell between cell divisions
sister chromatids
result of DNA replication, genetically identical duplicate DNA molecule making up two halved of a doubled chromosome
centromeres
structure which holds together in the sister chromatids in a doubled chromosome
homologous chromosomes
-chromosome pairs that contain the same genes
-look like all other chromosomes, but contain genes which are different than all other chromosomes
Sex chromosomes
determine gender
autosomes
all other chromosomes
Diploid cell
-contains both halves of each homologous pair of chromosomes
-contains a full set of genetic information
Haploid cell
-contains only 1/2 of the full set of genetic information
-contains only one chromosome from each homologous pair
Testes
male gonads
Ovaries
female gonads
Sperm
male gametes
Eggs
female gametes