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hip socket; the large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint


originating with another


form the joint between the lower leg and the foot

ankylosing spondylitis

a form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae


the loss, or absence, of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or a surgical procedure


an inflammatory condition of one or more joints


the surgical fusion (joining together) of two bones to stiffen a joint, such as an ankle, elbow, or shoulder


the surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint


the surgical placement of an artificial joint


a stiffness of the joints, especially in the elderly

arthroscopic surgery

a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint


the visual examination of the internal structure of a joint

articular cartilage

covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints

auditory ossicles

the six tiny bones of the middle ear


originating within an individual

axial skeleton

protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems; consists of 80 bones including those of the skull, the ribs, sternum, and thoracic vertebrae of the thoracic cavity, and the other vertebrae of the spinal column

bone density testing

used to determine losses or changes in bone density

bone marrow biopsy

a diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete blood count test

bone marrow transplant

used to treat certain types of cancers, such as leukemia and lymphomas, that affect bone marrow

bone-conserving hip resurfacing

function is restored to the hip by placing a metal cap over the head of the femur to allow it to move smoothly over a metal lining in the acetabulum


a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction


the surgical removal of a bursa


an inflammation of a bursa


the largest of the tarsal bones (heel bone)


forms as a bulging deposit around the area of the break as a bone heals


the 8 bones that form the wrist


the smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones

cartilaginous joints

allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage

cervical vertebrae

the first set of seven vertebrae that form the neck; also known as C1 through C7


holds a Doctor of Chiropractic degree and specializes in the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine


a slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells


the abnormal softening of cartilage


the surgical repair of damaged cartilage


the collar bone, a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula

closed fracture

one in which the bone is broken, but there is no open wound in the skin

closed reduction

the attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation


forms the end of the spine and is actually made up of four small vertebrae that are fused together (tailbone)

Colles' fracture

occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his or her hands

comminuted fracture

one in which the bone is splintered or crushed

compact bone

the dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones

compression fracture

occurs when the bone is pressed together (compressed) on itself


an inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum


the surgical removal of a portion of the skull


the surgical repair of the skull


a malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures


a surgical incision or opening into the skull


the portion of the skull that encloses the brain


the grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together

cruciate ligaments

make possible the movements of the knee


the shaft of a long bone


the total displacement of a bone from its joint

dual x-ray absorptiometry

a low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density


the tissue that line the medullary cavity


the wide end of a long bone

ethmoid bone

forms part of the posterior portion of the nose, the orbit, and the floor of the cranium

external auditory meatus

the opening of the exernal auditory canal of the outer ear

external fixation

a fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissues and bone so that an external applicance can be used to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place during healing

fat embolus

can form when a long bone is fractured and fat cells from yellow bone marrow are released into the blood


the upper leg bone (largest bone in the body)

fibrous dysplasia

a bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue

fibrous joints

consists of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, holds the bones tightly together


the smaller of the two bones of the lower leg


soft spots normally present on the skull of a newborn


an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass


a broken bone

frontal bone

forms the forehead

gouty arthritis

a type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid in the joints

greenstick fracture

one in which the bone is bent and only partially broken

hallux valgus

an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe (bunion)


blood within a joint


pertaining to the formation of blood cells

herniated disk

the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots


the bone of the upper arm


the broad blade-shaped bone that forms the back and sides of the pubic bone


the act of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast

interior conchae

the thin, scroll-like bones that form part of the interior of the nose

internal fixation

a fracture treatment in which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place

intervertebral disks

made of cartilage, separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other


forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone and bears the weight of the body when sitting


the place of union between two or more bones

juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

an autoimmune disorder that affects children aged 16 years or less with symptoms that include stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue


the complex joints that make possible movement between the upper and lower leg


an abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side (humpback)

lacrimal bones

make up part of the orbit at the inner angle of the eye


the surgical removal of a lamina, or posterior portion, of a vertebra


bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone, or joining a bone to cartilage


an abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine (swayback)


pain of the lumbar region of the spine

lumbar vertebrae

make up the third set of five vertebrae and form the inward curve of the lower spine; also known as L1 through L5

magnetic resonance imaging

MRI, used to image soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints


the rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle


the jawbone, the only movable bone of the skull, attached to the skull at the TMJ


the bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum

maxillary bones

form most of the upper jaw

medullary cavity

located in the shaft of a long bone and is surrounded by compact bone


the curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints


the 5 bones that form the palms of the hand


form the part of the foot to which the toes are attached


a type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells found in the red bone marrow

nasal bones

two bones that form the upper part of the bridge of the nose

oblique fracture

occurs at an angle across the bone

occipital bone

forms the posterior floor and walls of the cranium

olecranon process

a large projection on the upper end of the ulna (funny bone)

open fracture

one in which the bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin

orthopedic surgeon

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles


a mechanical applicance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function


pain in a bone


the surgical removal of bone


an inflammation of bone


most commonly associated with aging (wear-and-tear arthritis)


a benign bony projection covered with cartilage


the surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity


abnormal softening of bones in adults


an inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone


the death of bone tissue due to a lack of sufficient blood supply


holds a Doctor of Osteopathy degree and uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation


thinner than average bone density in a young person


the surgical repair of a bone or bones


a marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging

osteoporotic hip fracture

usually caused by a weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur either spontaneously or as the result of a fall


the surgical suturing, or wiring together, of bones


a surgical incision or sectioning of a bone

Paget's disease

a bone disease of unknown cause characterized by the excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation

palatine bones

form part of the hard palate of the mouth and the floor of the nose

parietal bones

form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium

partial knee replacement

a procedure in which only part of the knee is replaced


the bony anterior portion of the knee (kneecap)

pathologic fracture

occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain

pectoral girdle

formed by the shoulders, which support the arms and hands

pelvic girdle

protects internal organs and supports the lower extremeties; a cup-shaped ring of bone at the lower end of the trunk that consists of the ilium, ischium, and pubis

percutaneous diskectomy

performed to treat a herniated intervertebral disk

percutaneous vertebroplasty

performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures


an incision through the periosteum to the bone


the tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone


an inflammation of the periosteum


the 14 bones of the fingers; the bones of the toes


holds a Doctor of Podiatry or Doctor of Podiatric Medicine degree and specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot


referring to the posterior space behind the knee where the ligaments, vessels, and muscles related to this joint are located

primary bone cancer

a relatively rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone


a normal projection on the surface of a bone that serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons


a substitute for a diseased or missing body part, such as a leg that has been amputated

pubic symphysis

the cartilaginous joint known that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth


forms the anterior portion of the pubic bone, located just below the urinary bladder




the smaller and shorter bone in the forearm; runs up the thumb side of the forearm

red bone marrow

located within the spongy bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes

revision surgery

the replacement of a worn or failed implant

rheumatoid arthritis

a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked


12 pairs, attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae

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