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194 terms

Med term ch3 bones

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acetabulum
hip socket; the large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint
allogenic
originating with another
ankles
form the joint between the lower leg and the foot
ankylosing spondylitis
a form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae
ankylosis
the loss, or absence, of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or a surgical procedure
arthritis
an inflammatory condition of one or more joints
arthrodesis
the surgical fusion (joining together) of two bones to stiffen a joint, such as an ankle, elbow, or shoulder
arthrolysis
the surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint
arthroplasty
the surgical placement of an artificial joint
arthrosclerosis
a stiffness of the joints, especially in the elderly
arthroscopic surgery
a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint
arthroscopy
the visual examination of the internal structure of a joint
articular cartilage
covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints
auditory ossicles
the six tiny bones of the middle ear
autologous
originating within an individual
axial skeleton
protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems; consists of 80 bones including those of the skull, the ribs, sternum, and thoracic vertebrae of the thoracic cavity, and the other vertebrae of the spinal column
bone density testing
used to determine losses or changes in bone density
bone marrow biopsy
a diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete blood count test
bone marrow transplant
used to treat certain types of cancers, such as leukemia and lymphomas, that affect bone marrow
bone-conserving hip resurfacing
function is restored to the hip by placing a metal cap over the head of the femur to allow it to move smoothly over a metal lining in the acetabulum
bursa
a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction
bursectomy
the surgical removal of a bursa
bursitis
an inflammation of a bursa
calcaneus
the largest of the tarsal bones (heel bone)
callus
forms as a bulging deposit around the area of the break as a bone heals
carpals
the 8 bones that form the wrist
cartilage
the smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones
cartilaginous joints
allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage
cervical vertebrae
the first set of seven vertebrae that form the neck; also known as C1 through C7
chiropractor
holds a Doctor of Chiropractic degree and specializes in the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine
chondroma
a slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells
chondromalacia
the abnormal softening of cartilage
chondroplasty
the surgical repair of damaged cartilage
clavicle
the collar bone, a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula
closed fracture
one in which the bone is broken, but there is no open wound in the skin
closed reduction
the attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation
coccyx
forms the end of the spine and is actually made up of four small vertebrae that are fused together (tailbone)
Colles' fracture
occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his or her hands
comminuted fracture
one in which the bone is splintered or crushed
compact bone
the dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones
compression fracture
occurs when the bone is pressed together (compressed) on itself
costochondritis
an inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum
craniectomy
the surgical removal of a portion of the skull
cranioplasty
the surgical repair of the skull
craniostenosis
a malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures
craniotomy
a surgical incision or opening into the skull
cranium
the portion of the skull that encloses the brain
crepitation
the grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together
cruciate ligaments
make possible the movements of the knee
diaphysis
the shaft of a long bone
dislocation
the total displacement of a bone from its joint
dual x-ray absorptiometry
a low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density
endosteum
the tissue that line the medullary cavity
epiphysis
the wide end of a long bone
ethmoid bone
forms part of the posterior portion of the nose, the orbit, and the floor of the cranium
external auditory meatus
the opening of the exernal auditory canal of the outer ear
external fixation
a fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissues and bone so that an external applicance can be used to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place during healing
fat embolus
can form when a long bone is fractured and fat cells from yellow bone marrow are released into the blood
femur
the upper leg bone (largest bone in the body)
fibrous dysplasia
a bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue
fibrous joints
consists of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, holds the bones tightly together
fibula
the smaller of the two bones of the lower leg
fontanelles
soft spots normally present on the skull of a newborn
foramen
an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass
fracture
a broken bone
frontal bone
forms the forehead
gouty arthritis
a type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid in the joints
greenstick fracture
one in which the bone is bent and only partially broken
hallux valgus
an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe (bunion)
hemarthrosis
blood within a joint
hemopoietic
pertaining to the formation of blood cells
herniated disk
the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
humerus
the bone of the upper arm
ilium
the broad blade-shaped bone that forms the back and sides of the pubic bone
immobilization
the act of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast
interior conchae
the thin, scroll-like bones that form part of the interior of the nose
internal fixation
a fracture treatment in which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place
intervertebral disks
made of cartilage, separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other
ischium
forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone and bears the weight of the body when sitting
joints
the place of union between two or more bones
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
an autoimmune disorder that affects children aged 16 years or less with symptoms that include stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue
knees
the complex joints that make possible movement between the upper and lower leg
kyphosis
an abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side (humpback)
lacrimal bones
make up part of the orbit at the inner angle of the eye
laminectomy
the surgical removal of a lamina, or posterior portion, of a vertebra
ligaments
bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone, or joining a bone to cartilage
lordosis
an abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine (swayback)
lumbago
pain of the lumbar region of the spine
lumbar vertebrae
make up the third set of five vertebrae and form the inward curve of the lower spine; also known as L1 through L5
magnetic resonance imaging
MRI, used to image soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints
malleolus
the rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle
mandible
the jawbone, the only movable bone of the skull, attached to the skull at the TMJ
manubrium
the bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum
maxillary bones
form most of the upper jaw
medullary cavity
located in the shaft of a long bone and is surrounded by compact bone
meniscus
the curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints
metacarpals
the 5 bones that form the palms of the hand
metatarsals
form the part of the foot to which the toes are attached
myeloma
a type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells found in the red bone marrow
nasal bones
two bones that form the upper part of the bridge of the nose
oblique fracture
occurs at an angle across the bone
occipital bone
forms the posterior floor and walls of the cranium
olecranon process
a large projection on the upper end of the ulna (funny bone)
open fracture
one in which the bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin
orthopedic surgeon
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles
orthotic
a mechanical applicance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function
ostealgia
pain in a bone
ostectomy
the surgical removal of bone
osteitis
an inflammation of bone
osteoarthritis
most commonly associated with aging (wear-and-tear arthritis)
osteochondroma
a benign bony projection covered with cartilage
osteoclasis
the surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity
osteomalacia
abnormal softening of bones in adults
osteomyelitis
an inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone
osteonecrosis
the death of bone tissue due to a lack of sufficient blood supply
osteopath
holds a Doctor of Osteopathy degree and uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation
osteopenia
thinner than average bone density in a young person
osteoplasty
the surgical repair of a bone or bones
osteoporosis
a marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging
osteoporotic hip fracture
usually caused by a weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur either spontaneously or as the result of a fall
osteorrhaphy
the surgical suturing, or wiring together, of bones
osteotomy
a surgical incision or sectioning of a bone
Paget's disease
a bone disease of unknown cause characterized by the excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation
palatine bones
form part of the hard palate of the mouth and the floor of the nose
parietal bones
form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium
partial knee replacement
a procedure in which only part of the knee is replaced
patella
the bony anterior portion of the knee (kneecap)
pathologic fracture
occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain
pectoral girdle
formed by the shoulders, which support the arms and hands
pelvic girdle
protects internal organs and supports the lower extremeties; a cup-shaped ring of bone at the lower end of the trunk that consists of the ilium, ischium, and pubis
percutaneous diskectomy
performed to treat a herniated intervertebral disk
percutaneous vertebroplasty
performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures
periosteotomy
an incision through the periosteum to the bone
periosteum
the tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone
periostitis
an inflammation of the periosteum
phalanges
the 14 bones of the fingers; the bones of the toes
podiatrist
holds a Doctor of Podiatry or Doctor of Podiatric Medicine degree and specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot
popliteal
referring to the posterior space behind the knee where the ligaments, vessels, and muscles related to this joint are located
primary bone cancer
a relatively rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone
process
a normal projection on the surface of a bone that serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons
prosthesis
a substitute for a diseased or missing body part, such as a leg that has been amputated
pubic symphysis
the cartilaginous joint known that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth
pubis
forms the anterior portion of the pubic bone, located just below the urinary bladder
radiograph
x-ray
radius
the smaller and shorter bone in the forearm; runs up the thumb side of the forearm
red bone marrow
located within the spongy bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes
revision surgery
the replacement of a worn or failed implant
rheumatoid arthritis
a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked
ribs
12 pairs, attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae
rickets
a deficiency disease occurring in children
sacroiliac
the slightly movable articulation between the sacrum and posterior portion of the ilium
sacrum
the slightly curved, triangular-shaped bone near the base of the spine that forms the lower portion of the back
scapula
shoulder blade
scoliosis
an abnormal lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine
secondary bone cancer
describes tumors that have metastasized to bones from other organs such as the breasts and lungs
short stature
a condition resulting from the failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an appropriate length
skeletal system
consists of the bones, bone marrow, cartilage, joints, legaments, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, and bursa
skull
consists of the eight bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face, and six bones in the middle ear
sphenoid bone
forms part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the orbit
spina bifida
a congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it
spinal column
supports the head and body and protects the spinal cord
spinal fusion
a technique to immobilize part of the spine by joining together (fusing) two or more vertebrae
spiral fracture
a fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart
spondylolisthesis
the forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it
spondylosis
a degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function
spongy bone
lighter, not as strong, as compact bone
sternum
the breastbone, forms the middle of the front of the rib cage and is divided into three parts
stress fracture
a small crack in the bone that often develops from chronic, excessive impact
subluxation
the partial displacement of a bone from its joint
synovectomy
the surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint
synovial capsule
the outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint
synovial fluid
flows within the synovial cavity and acts as a lubricant to make the smooth movement of the joint possible
synovial joints
created where two bones articulate to permit a variety of motions
synovial membrane
lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid
synovitis
inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling and pain of the affected joint
talipes
describes any congenital deformity of the foot involving the talus (ankle bones)
talus
the anklebone that articulates with the tibia and fibula
tarsal
seven short bones which form the ankle
temporal bones
form the sides and base of the cranium
temporo-mandibular joint
TMJ, attaches the jawbone to the skull
thoracic cavity
the bony structure that protects the heart and lungs; consists of the ribs, sternum, and uppoer portion of the spinal column extending from the neck to the diaphragm, not including the arms
thoracic vertebrae
the second set of 12 vertebrae; form the outward curve of the spine and are known as T1 through T12
tibia
the larger weight-bearing bone in the anterior of the lower leg (shinbone)
total hip replacement
performed to restore a adamaged hip to full function
total knee replacement
a procedure in which all of the parts of the knee are replaced
traction
a pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to return the bone or joint to normal alignment
transverse fracture
occurs straight across the bone
ulna
the larger and longer bone of the forearm
ultrasonic bone density testing
a screening test for osteoporosis or other conditions that cause a loss of bone mass
vertebrae
the bony structure units of the spinal column (26)
vomer bone
forms the base for the nasal septum
xiphoid process
the structure made of cartilage that forms the lower portion of the sternum
yellow bone marrow
functions as a fat storage area, composed chiefly of fat cells and is located in the medullary cavity
zygomatic bones
known as the cheeckbones, articulate with the frontal bone (forehead)