IB Geography: Tourism
Terms in this set (42)
Any freely chosen activity or experience that takes place in non-work time.
A leisure time activity undertaken voluntarily for enjoyment. Includes individual pursuits, organized outings and events and non-paid sports.
A physical activity involving sets of rules or customs. This activity may be competitive.
Travel away from home fir at least one night for the purpose of leisure.
Why are there difficulties in defining leisure recreation, tourism and sport.
They overlap because participation is simultaneous.
Discuss the influence of accessibility upon the growth of these activities.
Infrastructural improvements open up pleasure periphery.
Discuss the influence of changes in technology upon the growth of these activities.
Internet has facilitated research and booking operations. Credit card has made payments much easier between customer and tour operator. Wide-bodied jet planes, high speed trains and large cruise shits, widen economies of scale and time space convergence.
Discuss the influence of affluence upon the growth of these activities.
Growing desire by wealthier population to escape pressures of urban living. More disposable income. More educated population are aware of cultures and environments driving curiosity. More leisure time with shorter working hours and paid leave of skilled jobs.
Explain key patterns in international tourism.
Tourist preference shifting towards Asia-Pacific region due to their rapid economic development, improved infrastructure, hygiene and knowledge of languages.
Explain social reasons for rising demand in international tourism.
smaller families making tourism more affordable. Increase in leisure time. Increase in life expectancy giving more time to travel after retirement. Improved linguistic skills. Increase in computer ownership and access to internet. Increase population.
Explain economic reasons for rising demand in international tourism.
Increase in disposable income. Growth in low cost airlines. Introduction of pensions making it more affordable after retirement. Increase in advertising. Improvement in tourist infrastructure. Weakening of currency in tourist destinations making I cheaper. Wider use of credit cards. Increase car ownership.
Explain political reasons for rising demand in international tourism.
Removal of visa restrictions. Government invest in tourist infrastructure. Greater political freedom. Increased stability in area.
Explain environmental reasons for rising demand in international tourism.
Creation of new national parks. Natural landforms being designated a UNESCO site. Reliable weather. Natural beauty. Introduction of ecotourism.
Explain social reasons for falling demand in international tourism.
Terrors it attacks. Ethnic tensions between locals and tourist.
Explain economic reasons for falling demand in international tourism.
Economic recession. Increase cost of travel due to oil price rise. Weakening of domestic currency making international travel more expensive. Credit crunch making finance harder to access.
Explain political reasons for falling demand in international tourism.
Political instability. Introduction of visa. Closing borders.
Explain environmental reasons for falling demand in international tourism.
Natural disasters. Environmental accidents. Outbreaks of disease.
Explain stage 1 of the Butler's tourism model.
Exploration. A new destination, with very few visitors. Usually adventurous travelers visit and have minimal impact.
Explain stage 2 of the Butler's tourism model.
Involvement. If the tourists like the new destination and the destination is happy to receive tourists, then there may be investment in tourist infrastructure and involvement by locals. Tourist numbers grow slowly.
Explain stage 3 of the Butler's tourism model.
Development. Tourisms becomes big business with further investment and involvement by TNCs. Holidays become more organized with package holidays.
Explain stage 4 of the Butler's tourism model.
Consolidation. The area become reliant on tourism. Advertising and marketing attempts to maintain and increase tourism levels.
Explain stage 5 of the Butler's tourism model.
Stagnation. There is some local opposition to tourists. There is no new investment and tourists become tired of the same destination and growth stops.
Explain stage 6 and 7 of the Butler's tourism model.
Rejuvenation. tourism is re-launched through advertising, tourists arrival from new markets increase, new transport links are opened or the tourism become more sustainable.
Decline. There is no re-launch, locals remove their support, TNCs leave.
Name factors affecting participation in football.
Football is a global sport and spread with British Empire. Large government investment by Sport Minister in England for stadiums and equipment to develop football talent. Football can be played in state-provided parks.
Name factors affecting participation in golf.
Wealthier countries od better at golf because leisure time and affluence needed.
Gold courses are privately owned and expensive. Female success in golf is dominated by East-Asians as opposed to males where it's whites. Cultural norm of male-dominated not ingrained with introduction of golf.
Factors that affect supporters spreading out.
Transport advancements. Time space convergence, viewing sporting events is huge leisure activity. Technological advancements. Television and social media. Successful teams have wider sphere of influence.
Define carrying capacity.
The maximum number of visitors/ participant that a site/event can satisfy at one time.
Define environmental carrying capacity.
The maximum number before the local environment becomes damaged.
Define perceptual carrying capacity.
The maximum number before a specific group of visitors considers the level of impact such as noise to be excessive.
Describe intra-urban patterns of tourism.
From CBD to rural-urban fringe, the distribution of facilities becomes sparser.
Describe reasons for intra-urban patterns of tourism.
Culture more varied in CBD. Land value is higher and competing land use so facilities font require much space. More economically well-off. More accessible so wider sphere of influence/ catchment area.
Define sustainable tourism.
Tourism that conserves primary tourist resources and supports the livelihoods and culture of local people.
Name factors of sustainable tourism.
Using natural, cultural and social resources sustainably Reducing overconsumption and waste. Maintaining biodiversity. Involving local communities.
Name factors of sustainable tourism measures in coastal environments.
Banning plastic bags. Promote sustainable diving such as diving quotas. Stop trade in coral and turtle shells.
Name factors of sustainable tourism measures in national parks.
Enforce ban against poaching with fines or jail terms. Only allow small-scale ecotourism. Leave only footprints and take only pictures.
Define primary tourist resources.
Pre-existing attractions for tourism or recreation such as cultural/heritage sites and beaches.
Define secondary tourist resources.
Built for tourists such as accommodation.
Tourism directed towards exotic natural environments, intended to support conservation efforts and observe wildlife.
Name reasons why ecotourism become more popular.
Now people are aware of costs of mass tourism move to small scale. Improved education and awareness make people confident about visiting exotic and remote locations.
Advantages of tourism as a development strategy.
If a country lack raw materials but has pristine nature, endowed with heritage sites. Prevents marginalization. Diversifies economy with service sector. Infrastructural improvements are worthwhile.
Disadvantages of tourism as a development strategy.
Global shocks depress international tourist demand but domestic demand too weak to compensate for lost international revenue (dependence). Inflation marginalizes locals. Overshoot carrying capacity because not equipped to deal with congestion. Emergence of black market. Economic leakage due to TNCs.
Name management strategies for tourism in rural areas.
Improved signage to prevent littering, leaving gates open, trampling and ignoring footpaths. Indicating punishment for actions. Ban cars with park and ride schemes because narrow roads are prone to congestion.
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