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A&P II Exam 1

~Endocrine, ~Heart (Anatomy, Conduction: Rhythm, ECG, Cardiac Output, Heart Problems, Risk Factors) ~Blood Vessels (Orginization, Filtration, BP) ~Blood (Composition, Production, Blood Types, Disorders)
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What happens when Homeostasis is imbalanced, what are the steps?
1. Stimulus produces change in variable
2. Change detected by receptor (sensor)
3. Input: info sent along afferent pathway to
4. Control center
5. Output: info sent along efferent pathway to
6. Effector
7. Response of effector feeds back to influence magnitude of stimulus and returns variable to homeostasis.
What are the 10 parts of the endocrine system
1. Hypothalamus 2. Pituitary glands 3. Thyroid gland
4. Thymus 5. Adrenal glands 6. Ovaries 7. Pineal Body
8. Parathyroid Glands 9. Pancreas 10. Testes
~The endocrine system is the biggest system involved in_______ because it has?
~It generally regulates?
~Homeostasis, has longer effects
~activities of body structures
Hormones: define? travel?
chemicals that are secreted, travel via the blood, to have diff effects on diff tissues
Why are hormones specific?
they have target cells that have receptor for certain interactions that are for certain actions
There will be specific interactions between what? to produce what?
chemical hormones and "target" cells to produce a change
Functions of hormones in the endocrine system (3)
1. Homeostasis- maintaining internal balance
2. Regulating metabolism
3. Monitoring/promoting important activities (ex: growth and reproduction)
What the nervous systems job pertaining to the endocrine system?
the overall supervisor while the endocrine glands are conducting the jobs
Pituitary gland job for the endocrine system
overall boss of glands and endocrine system
Hypothalamus job in the endocrine system
controls the pituitary ---> controls ANS, blood concentration
Functions of the endocrine system (10)
1. Metabolism & tissue maturation
2. Ion regulation
3. H20 balance (ADH)
4. Immune sys regulation
5. HR & BP regulation
6. Control of blood glucose & other nutrients (gastrin)
7. Control of reproductive functions
8. Uterine contraction & milk release
9. Growth & development
10. Sleep/Wake cycle (melatonin)
Hormones: 1. Produced? 2.Travel? 3. Secreted? 4. Act on? 5. Work with?
1. Produced in small quantities
2. Travel via blood
3. Secreted through endocrine processes
4. Act on target tissues w/ specific receptors
5. Work with ligand channels
All hormones have a ____ life? which is linked to a lot of ____?
half, disease
Endocrine vs: Nervous Systems
Endocrine:
1. amplitude modulated signals
2. amount of hormone determines strength of signal
3. onset w/in minuets of secretion of hormone
Nervous:
1. frequency modulated signals
2. frequency of a.p. produced by neurons-->strength of signal
3. onset w/in milliseconds
Nervous and Endocrine work together or separate?
together, inseparable
Define ligands
more general term for chem signals, something that binds
Examples of how the endocrine and nervous systems work together (3)
1. nervous systems secrete neurohormones into circulatory system
2. nervous sys uses neurotransmitters and neuromodulators
3. some parts of endocrine innervated directly by nervous sys
Define: Hormones
travel through blood to specific targets
Does the endocrine or nervous system work faster
nervous
Define: Autocrine
cells self-regulate, communicate between themselves, read own signals
Define: Paracrine
similar to hormones, are local, do not travel through circulatory, work in tissue they live in
Define: Neurohormone
travels through blood, hits target, made by neurons
Neurotransmitter/ neuromodulator
released at the target at the synaptic cleft
Most hormones are controlled how
through feedback systems positive and negative
which feedback system is more common with hormones
negative, most hormones are also regulated with the negative system
hormones are regulated by what 3 methods
1. action of a substance other than a hormone on an endocrine gland
2. neural control of endocrine gland
3. control of secretory activity of one endocrine gland by hormone or neurohormones secreted by another endocrine gland
Example of positive feedback
Child Birth: ~Cervix stretches from babies head, ~signals body to produce oxytocin, ~oxytocin causes uterus to contract (which stretches cervix even more), ~which causes oxytocin to produce even more, ~which causes uterus to contract even more...ect ect
Steroid hormones: solubility? pass cell membrane?
lipid soluble, can pass right through no problem.
Amides and peptides: solubility?
H2O soluble
receptor location for hormones: 1. lipid? 2. water?
1. inside cell
2. outside cell
extracellular receptors interact with hormones that?
hormones that cannot pass through the plasma membrane