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55 terms

Science -- gr. 7 final Mr. Ribaudo

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independent variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
control variable
The variable that does not change in an experiment
frame of reference
a system of objects that are not moving with respect to one another
distance
how far an object moves
displacement
the change in position of an object
vector
a quantity that has magnitude and direction
speed
the distance an object travels per unit of time
instantaneous speed
the speed of an object at any given time
velocity
the speed of an object in a particular direction
acceleration
The rate at which velocity changes.
instantaneous acceleration
the change in velocity at an instant of time
force
a push or pull exerted on an object
terminal velocity
the greatest velocity a falling object reaches
projectile motion
the curved path that an object follows when thrown, launched, or otherwise projected near the surface of the earth
Newton's 1st Law (the law of inertia)
An object in motion will stay in motion and an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by an ouside force
Newton's 2nd Law
Te acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object
Newton's 3rd Law
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
weight
mass multiplied the acceleration of gravity
mass
the amount of matter within an object
momentum
the product of an object's mass and its velocity
work
force exerted on an object in the way that an object is moving
power
the amount of work done in a certain time
centripetal force
A force that causes an object to move in a circle
machine
a device that makes work easier
mechanical advantage
the number of times a machine increases a force exerted on it
efficiency
the percentage of the input work that is converted to output work
compound machine
a combination of two or more simple machines
Distance-time graph
graph in which distance is measured against time
Formula for acceleration
Change in velocity/total time, V(2)-V(1)/t
Formula for average speed
Distance/time
relative motion
the change in position of one object compared to the position of another
acceleration of gravity
acceleration of a falling object
free fall
the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity
speed-time graph
shows the speed of an object during a specific time
units for force
Newtons
static friction
friction that acts on objects that are not moving
sliding friction
friction that occurs when one solid surface slides over another
rolling friction
friction that occurs when an object rolls over a surface
fluid friction
friction that occurs as an object moves through a fluid
strongest type of friction
sliding
friction
effort expended in rubbing one object against another
gravity
(physics) the force of attraction between all masses in the universe
acceleration of gravity on Earth
9.8 meters/second/second
4 Universal forces
electromagnetic, gravitational, weak, strong.
tides
movement of large bodies of water up and down based on the moons gravitational pull
spring tides
occur during the full and new moons, tides are very high and very low
neap tides
lowest tidal range occurring near the times of the first quarter and third quarter phases of the moon; The tides with the smallest variation in water level
diurnal pattern
a tidal pattern exhibiting one high tide and one low tide during a tidal day; a daily tide
semidiurnal pattern
A tidal pattern exhibiting two nearly equal high and low tides per day
mixed tidal pattern
two high and two low waters each day with large inequalities in high water heights, low water heights, or both
energy
(physics) the capacity of a physical system to do work
kinetic energy
energy in motion
potential energy
Stored energy
conservation of energy
a fundamental principle stating energy cannot be created nor destroyed but only changed from one form to another