Psychology 102 - Chapter 14
Terms in this set (92)
What is a Trait?
Relatively enduring predisposition that influences our behavior across many situations
People's typical ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving
What is the Nomothetic Approach?
Focuses on identifying general laws that govern the behavior of all individuals
What is the Idiographic Approach?
Focuses on identifying the unique configuration of characteristics and life history experiences within a person
Genetic Factors Influences on Personality
Personalities are linked with biological parents genetic makeup
Shared Environmental Factors on Personality
Experiences that make individuals within family more alike, kids are raised similarly
Nonshared Environmental Factors on Personality
Experiences that make individuals within family less alike, one kid is showed love more then the other
What are the 3 most important traits in Psychoanalytic personality
Childhood experiences, Unconscious motives, sexual instincts
Psychic Determinism of Psychoanalytic Theory
Assumption that all psychological events have a cause
Symbolic Meaning of Psychoanalytic Theory
Assumption that all actions have meaning
Unconscious Motivation of Psychoanalytic Theory
Assumption that we rarely understand why we do things, we make up reasons why after the fact
Reservoir of our most primitive impulses, including sex and aggression, basic instincts, completely unconscious
Tendency of the Id to strive for immediate gratification
Our sense of morality, contains sense of right&wrong which is internalized from interactions with society & parents
Psyche's executive & principal decision maker, governed by Reality Principal, interacting with the real world
Reality Principal of The Ego
Tendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outlet
What are the 3 levels of Mental Life
Consciousness, Preconscious, Unconscious
What are the 5 Psychosexual Stages of Development
Oral (0-18mths), Anal (18mths-3yrs), Phallic (3-6yrs), Latency (6-12yrs), Genital (12+yrs)
Characteristics of the Preconscious
Includes the Ego, material is just below surface of awareness
Characteristics of the Unconscious
Includes the Id, difficult to retrieve material, well below surface of awareness, all psychic energy here
Model of the Ego
Ego-Psychological Component-Reality Principle
Model of the ID
ID-Biological Component-Pleasure Principle
Model of the Superego
Superego-Social Component-Moral Imperative
Characteristics of the Oral Stage
Focuses on mouth, pleasure/satisfaction by sucking, eating, drinking & babbling, impatient & demanding
Characteristics of the Anal Stage
Focuses on toilet training, first psychological conflicts, experience pleasure by pooping but has to be in socially acceptable place-like toilet
Characteristics of the Phallic Stage
Focuses on genitals, becomes aware of sexual differences between genders
Characteristics of the Latency Stage
Sexual impulses are submerged into unconscious, girls find boy 'yucky'
Characteristics of the Genital Stage
Sexual impulses awaken & typically begin to mature into romantic attraction towards others
Ego adopts these to defend against anxiety brought from conflicts, extreme use may lead to compulsive, unhealthy, behaviour
Hypotheses derived from Freudian theory are difficult or impossible to refute, often used ad hoc maneuvers
According to science what is said about Freudian Defense mechanisms
Little scientific evidence to support them
What is a key aspect of Freudian theories?
They are problematic scientifically
Derives from Freud's theories, less emphasis on sexuality as driving force, emphasize unconscious influences on behavior, early experiences are important, more optimistic regarding prospects for long-term personality growth
First major follower of Freud to defect, Viennese psychiatrist, principal motive in personality was striving for superiority
Style of Life
Derived from Adler, each person's distinctive way of achieving superiority
Feelings of low self-esteem that can lead to overcompensation for such feelings
What do feelings of inferiority lead people to do?
Strive for superiority or success
What may people do when compensating for a feeling?
Overcompensate, strive in rigid manner
What did Jung believe regarding Freud theories?
People are motivated to attain self-realization or perfection
Jung Ego Structure
Conscious component, carries out normal daily activities
Jung Personal Unconscious
Contains all accessible memories, thoughts & feelings, all repressed memories, wishes, impulses
Jung Collective Unconscious
The most inaccessible layer, shared by all people, contains universal experiences
Shared storehouse of primitive ideas and images
What are Archetypes
Cross-culturally universal emotional symbols
What is the Mandala
Ultimate symbol of self
What are the advantages of Psychoanalytic Theories
What are the disadvantages of Psychoanalytic Theories
Unscientific, difficult to test empirically
What 3 parts of personality are most important in Learning (Behaviorist)
External environment, rewards & punishments, observable behaviour
What did Pavlov, Watson, Skinner say about Behaviourist View of Personality
Behaviourists don't look within the psyche
Views of Determinism
We aren't free to choose our actions, products of preexisting casual influences, learning-environmental stimuli
Learning Theories: What is personality?
Individual history of reinforcement
Learning Theories: Advantages & Disadvantages
Disadvantage: What about thinking & cognition
What 3 parts of personality are most important in Social-Cognitive/Learning
Interpretation of experience, organization of reality, expectations
The role of thinking
Thinking as cause of personality, interpretation, learning is cognitively mediated
Tendency for people to mutually influence each other's behavior, everything influences everything
Proposed that much learning occurs from watching others, social factors shape personality
Locus of Control
Extent to which people believe that reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside of their control
Internal Locus Control
Believe life events are largely due to their own efforts and personal characteristics
External Locus Control
Believe life events are largely a product of chance & fate
What 3 parts of personality are most important in Humanistic personality
Conscious awareness, the self, subjective feelings
What is the theory/ies regarding Humanistic personality?
Assume people are motivated to achieve personal goals by internal forces, embrace free will, reject determinism
What is the core motive of Humanistic personality?
Self-actualization=drive to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent
Who are the 2 major Humanistic theorist?
Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers
What 3 assumptions did Carl Rogers make about behavior?
Goal-directed, people have potential for growth, how individuals see the world determine how they behave
What did Rogers feel about motivation?
That it was due to inborn tendency toward fulfillment
Personalities consist of 3 major components
Organism, Self, Conditions of worth
Our innate genetic blueprint
Our self-concept, the set of beliefs about who we are, Ideal Self is what we would like to be
Conditions of Worth
Expectations we place on ourselves for appropriate/inappropriate behavior
Tend to be creative, spontaneous, accepting of themselves & others, self-confident, few deep friendships, prone to Peak Experiences,
Transcendent moment of intense excitement and tranquility marked by a profound sense of connection to the world
Humanistic Theory: What is personality?
Unique ways of striving to fill our potential
Humanistic Theory: Advantage & Disadvantage
Advantage: Positive view
Disadvantage: No scientific research to confirm it's view
What is Positive Psychology?
Study of well-being, contentment, happiness and optimism using scientific methods
What are the 6 character strengths in positive psychology?
Wisdom & Knowledge, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, transcendence
What 3 parts of personality are most important in Trait personality?
Temperament, abilities, enduring characteristics
According to Trait personality, what is a trait?
Readily-identifiable, stable quality that characterizes an individual from others
Qualities that characterize a person's daily interactions
Characteristics that are exhibited in specific situations
Trait so dominant that a person's entire life revolves around it
Statistical technique that analyzes the correlations among responses on personality inventories
Most crucial features of personality are embedded in language
Traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analysis of personality measures
What do researchers think about the Big Five
They are the supertraits
The Five Factor Model
Openness to experience
Evaluating the Big 5
Able to predict real-world behaviours, appear to be limits to the cross-cultural universality
Trait personality: What is personality?
Individual's unique collection of traits, existence inferred from repeated occurrence of acts given the stimuli
Trait personality: Advantage & Disadvantage
Advantage: Individual approach
Disadvantage: Doesn't explain personality
What are the 3 summary statements about all theories of personality?
Each theory contributes to understanding some aspect of personality, theories reacted to preceding ideas, many are needed to study personality
Studies of kids & honesty
Hartshorne & May, extent to which people are honest in one situation not related to how honest they are in another situations
What did Walter Mischel argue about Personality Psychology
Personality traits didn't predict behavior very well
Demonstrated that while Mischel was correct for specific events, personality traits can predict aggregated behaviours