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112 terms

Innate Behavior & Habituation

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innate behavior patterns and habituation
-innate behavior
- habituation
innate behavior
behaviorial abilities that an animal already possess as they enter the world
habituation
the simplest type of learning in which an animal, after a period of exposure to a stimulus, stops responding
innate behavior patterns and habituation
how animals learn to therefore be able to approach to humans
innate behavior patterns and habituation
ethology
- the study of animal behavior in its natural setting
innate behavior patterns and habituation
ethologists
- scientists who study how animals behave in their natural environment or in a semi-naturalistic setting
- their purpose is to determine how an animal's behavior helps it to survive in its environment
innate behavior patterns and habituation
psychologists are different from etholgists
- psychologists' testing environments tend to be artificial
innate behavior patterns and habituation
in recent years psychologist have become interested in these innate behaviors
what we now know
purpose: is to accomplish something
what we now know
one characteristic that is common to learned and unlearned behaviors:
- they both appear to be purposeful or goal directed
- that is, they occur with the end result of accomplishing something
control systems theory
- goal directed > for innate objects
- tries to explain how everything tries to go back to homeostasis
control systems theory
provides a general framework for goal directed behavior
- used to explain goal-directed behaviors both in living creatures and inanimate objects
control systems theory
comparison between the actual state of the world and a goal state:
- states that all goal-directed behavior based upon feedback system
characteristics of goal-directed systems heating system
- comparator: measurements
- always tries to return to a balance
charcteristics of goal-directed systems heating system
example illustrates six of the mostimportant concepts of control systems theory
-reference input
- comparator
- actual input
- actual system
- output
- disturbance
characteristics of goal-directed systems
comparator: any instruments used to measure a property of a system [reference] by comparing it with a standard system [actual]
characteristics of goal-directed systems: comparator
receives 2 types of input:
- reference: conceptual entity [thought]
- actual: physical characteristic
characteristics of goal-directed systems
action system: what happens based on the interaction of information from the reference input and actual input
characteristics of goal-directed systems: action system
product of an action system is the output
heating system example continued
goal directed systems or behavior are frequently called a feedback system or a closed-loop system
heating system example continued
a close relationship does not always exist the output [warm air] of the action system and the actual input [temperature]
heating system example continued
disturbance
- a window open on a cold day, will also affect the air temp near the thermostat
- it may be quite different from the temp of the air coming out of the radiators
innate stereotyped movements
reflex:
- a stereotyped pattern of movement of a part of the body that can be reliably elicited by presenting the appropriate stimulus
innate stereotyped movements: reflect
- the knee jerk reflex
-a stimulus elicited response
- viewed as an example of a feedback system
innate stereotyped movements
reflexes are essential for a newborn's survival immediately after birth:
- incl. sucking, swallowing, blinking, urinating, hiccuping, and defecating
baby talk
palmer grasp:
present at birth, persists until about 6 months
baby talk
rooting reflect
- present at birth until about 4 months
- newborn infant will turn head toward anything that strokes his cheek or mouth
baby talk
babinski's reflex
- occurs when the big toe moves toward the top surface of the foot and the other toes fan out after the sole of the foot has been stroked
baby talk
sucking reflex
- sucks when area around mouth stimulated
baby talk
startle reflex
- pulling arms and legs inward after loud noise
baby talk
moro reflex
- reflex causes the baby to extend the arms, legs and fingers and arch the back
baby talk
step reflex
- stepping motions when sole of foot touches hard surface
baby talk
startle reflex and moro reflex are used interchangeable
not always learned
- some sensation
- your hand feels hot and at the spiral
- your body reacts before your brain gets the sensation
not always learned
- spinal reflex arc
- interneurons
not always learned: spinal reflex arc
path of neural excitation
not always learned: spinal reflex arc
rapid response to a stimulus
- touching a hot stove you have a flexion reflex response where your quick hand movement away from stove causes elbow to bend
not always learned: spinal reflex arc
signals come directly from motor neurons in the spine, instead of being delayed by through the brain
not always learned: spinal reflex arc
the action is involuntary and occurs without any involvement of thought or the brain
not always learned: interneurons [relay neuron]
separates the sensory neurons from motor neurons
- motor neurons lead to action
- sensory neurons send information to brain...you may then feel pain
feed back system: stretch receptions
- comparator
- action system
- goal
feed back system: stretch receptions
comparator [stretch receptors]
action system [motor neurons and muscle fibers]
goal [successful muscle contraction]
feed back system: stretch receptions
comparator continue to stimulate > action system > goal is achieved
feed back system: stretch receptions
just because some neurons have sent their commands to the muscle does not guarantee that the arm is safely withdrawn [there may be a disturbance]
tropisms and orientation
- tropism [involves turning or movement]
- types of tropisms
tropisms and orientation: tropism
whereas a reflex is the stereotyped movement of a body part, a tropism is involuntary orientation by an organism or one of its parts that involved turning or curving [by movement or by differential growth]
- a positive or negative response to a source of stimulation
- no intelligence, will or choice involved in movements
- movement or change in orientation of the entire animal
tropisms and orientation: types of tropism
- kineses [kinesis]
- taxes [taxis]
tropisms and orientation: types of tropism
Kineses [kinesis] not involving toward a purposeful location [for example not moving to a specific location north, south]
- non-directional/random response to a stimulus [ i.e., humidity and a wood lice] the animal does not move toward or away the stimulus but moves more or less depending on its response to a stimulus
tropisms and orientation
Taxes [taxis]
- the direction of movements bears a relationship to the location of the stimulus
- a plant
complex patterns: fixed action patters [fap]
both reflexes and fap's are elicited behaviors or behavior which happens in response to some environmental event
complex patterns: fixed action patters [fap]
reflexes are general to all species where at fap's is part of the repertoire of all members of a specific species and may be unique to that specific species
complex patterns: fixed action patters [fap]
the behavior pattern is not learned
complex patterns: fixed action patters [fap]
once a fap starts, it will continue to completion even if stimuli is removed
complex patterns: fixed action patters [fap]
fap triggered by sign stimulus
- specific stimulus to initiate a fixed action pattern
- a seemingly poor imitation of the natural sign stimulus can elicit a fap
characteristics of fap's
done in a rigid pattern unique to specific
characteristics of fap's
a part of the repertoire of all members of a species
- it may be unique to that species
characteristics of fap's
??
??
examples of fap's
nut burying behavior of squirrels [eibl eibesfeldt, 1975]
- highly controlled experiments-absence of parents
examples of fap's
territorial defense response of male three-spine stickleback fish in matting season [tinbergen, 1951]
- red patch
- painted over or wood
examples of fap's
laying egg behavior of an oyster catcher
- egg falls out of nest, stereotyped head and neck movements to bring it back
examples of fap's
provine [1989] contagious yawning in humans
- is a fixed action patter that may occur if we see the entire face of a yawning person
why are fap's hard to find in humans?
cognitive abilities
reaction chains
fap = always the same goes from beginning to end
reaction chains = can start at the middle
reaction chains
RC differ from faps
reaction chains
the progression from one behavior to the next depends on the presence of the appropriate external stimulus
- if the stimulus is not present, the chain of behavior will be interrupted
reaction chains
if a stimulus for a behavior in the middle of the chain is presented at the outset:
- the earlier behaviors will be omitted
- the rc patterns do not always occur in the complete sequence
- the sequence can stop at any point [hermit crag... pg 45]
- this dependence on external stimulus support makes the behaviors of a rc more variable, but at the same time more adaptable, than those of a fixed action patter
human beings
- obviously have a lot of reflexes, some fixed action patters, and other inborn behaviors
- yes, most of what we do is learned
- some british empiricists maintain that all human behavior is based on prior learning [tabula rasa]
the anti-blank slate: john watson [1925]
- believed that the environment could play a dominant role in determining what type of adults a child will become [pg 45]
- thought that heredity had little or nothing to do with how people behave
-- what evidence do we have to suggest otherwise?
innate human abilities and predispositions: steven pinker [2002]
disagrees with watson's view
innate human abilities and predispositions: steven pinker [2002]
believes that all human beings have in common a large set of inborn abilities, tendencies and predispositions: "human nature"
innate human abilities and predispositions: steven pinker [2002]
people living in different cultues and environment all exhibit a particular characteristic, i.e., language
innate human abilities and predispositions: steven pinker [2002]
brain is specialized to respond to environemnt in reestabbrain have specialized functionslished ways
- neurons in specific part of
innate human abilities and predispositions: steven pinker [2002]
neurons in specific part of brain have specialized functions
- wenicke's area
- broca's area
innate human abilities and predispositions: steven pinker [2002]: wernicke's area
- section of cerebral cortex essential for language comprehension
- if damaged: a person cannot understand spoken language [wenicke's aphasia]
innate human abilities and predispositions: steven pinker [2002]: broca's area
-necessary for speech production
- if damaged: a person loses the ability to speak in coherent sentences [broca's aphasia]
innate human abilities and predispositions
- ekman [1973, 2003]
- facial expression
- cross-cultural uniformity
innate human abilities and predispositions: facial expressions
can be understood by people from cultures around the around [universal emotions]
- happiness
- disgust
- surprise
- sadness
- anger
- fear
innate human abilities and predispositions: cross-cultural uniformity
cross-cultural uniformity in how people express emotions and interpret facial expressions
innate human abilities and predispositions
- anthropologist donald e. brown [1991
- future research may help sort out
innate human abilities and predispositions: anthropologist donald e. brown [1991]
- list of human universals
- having some type of... reflects innate human tendencies
innate human abilities and predispositions: anthropologist donald e. brown [1991]
list of human universals
- abilities or behaviors that are found in all known human cultures
-400 items
-- dance, music, death rituals, hygienic care, jokes, folklore, marriage, tool making and use, government, sanctions for crime, division of labor
innate human abilities and predispositions: anthropologist donald e. brown [1991]
future research may help sort out
- which of these universal characteristics are hereditary
- which are the product of similar environments
- which are a combination of the two
habituation
a decrease in the strength of a response after repeated stimulus presentations
- evident in the body's automatic responses to new and sudden stimuli [gun shots]
- accustom to environment if the same stimulus is presented many times
- stimulus specific [door alarm]
habitation: example
orienting responses
- to adjust or move toward a new stimulus [baby to new sound]
habitation: function
allow the individual to ignore insignificant stimuli that are repeatedly encounter
general principles of habituation: thompson and spencer [1966]
- course of habituation
- effect of time
- relearning effects
- effects of stimulus intensity
- effects of overlearning
- stimulus generalization
general principles of habituation: thompson and spencer [1966]
course of habituation
- occurs whenever a stimulus is repeatedly presented
general principles of habituation: thompson and spencer [1966]
effects of time
- if after time the stimulus is withheld for some period of time, the response will recover
- the amount of recovery depends on the amount of time that elapses [there is some savings but also some forgetting]
general principles of habituation: thompson and spencer [1966]
relearning effects
- in further series of stimulus presentations, habituation should occur progressively more quickly
general principles of habituation: thompson and spencer [1966]
effects of stimulus intensity
- habituation continues more rapidly with weak stimuli and if a stimulus is very intense there may be no habituation at all
general principles of habituation: thompson and spencer [1966]
effects of overlearning
- below zero habituation: further learning can occur at a time when there is no longer any change in observable behavior [20 vs 100 gunshots pg 45]
general principles of habituation: thompson and spencer [1966]
stimulus generalization
- the transfer of habituation from one stimulus to new but similar stimuli
- the amount of generalization depends on the degree of similarity between the stimuli according to the subject not the experimenter
physiological mechanisms of habituation
comes to a point in which the neurons determine whether or not to send the message [reaction]; happens on a neural level
physiological mechanisms of habituation
work of kandel and colleagues [e.g., 1982]
physiological mechanisms of habituation
the simple systems approach study of animals with simple nervous systems [much fewer] neurons]
- aplysia's gill-withdrawal reflex
physiological mechanisms of habituation
habituation due to weak calcium current in axom
- what changed was amount of neurons released into the synapse
- specific neural locations
- no widespread changes such as axxon growth or neurogensis... simple changes in chemical release of already existing neurons
habituation in mammals
- auditory cortex
- position emission tomography [pet] and functional magnetic resonance imaging [mri]
- cerebral cortex and hippocampus with repeated presentation of human faces
- the nervous system and ability to change as a result of experiences and stimulation
- can result from chemical changes in existing synopsis rather than from growth of new synapse
habituation in emotional responses: the opponent-process theory
- emotional act in opposing ways in pairs
- a process is the first one
- b process is the second one
habituation in emotional responses: the opponent-process theory
solomon and corbit [1974] concept:
emotions act in opposing pairs, such as happiness and sadness, fear and relief, pleasure and pain
habituation in emotional responses: the opponent-process theory: solomon and corbit...
emotions...
- when one of these is experienced [a process], the other [b process] is temporarily suppressed
- this opposite emotion [b process] however is likely to re-emerge stronger
- activating one emotion [a process] also activates its opposite [b process] and the interact as a linked pair
the opponent process theory
- a response [in always peak] acts quickly and returns to baseline
- b response is maintained longer
the opponent process theory
Emotional reactions consist of:
an initial response [a response] to a stimulus
- it is a fast acting response that decays quickly when the stimulus is taken away
the opponent process theory
Emotional reactions consist of:
a later opposing response [b process]
- the b process is initiated by the a process, but it is more sluggish in its rise and decay
the opponent process theory
Time plays a role in the emotional response
- subject's response to a stimulus changes as a result of repeated presentations
the opponent process theory
repeated presentations of the same stimulus strengthen the b process:
- that is, the initial reaction grows weaker and the after-reaction grows stronger and lasts longer
-- aversive events eventually become more likely to elicit positive emotions
-- desirable events, over time, become more likely to evoke negative emotions
jumpin' into an example
solomon and corbit [1974] analyzed the emotions of skydivers
- beginners experienced extreme fear in their initial jump [a process] which turned into great relief when they landed
jumpin' into an example
with repeated jumps, the fear of jumping decreased and the post-jump pleasure increased [b process]
- decrease in primary response [a process] = habituation
- b process was strengthened as euphoric feeling came quicker and lasted longer
opponent process theory: addictive behavior
opt can be used to explain drug use and other addictive behavior, as the pleasure of the high is used to oppress the pain of withdrawal
opponent process theory: addictive behavior
initial use vs multiple use:
- pleasurable initial reaction followed by an aversive after reaction
- first opiate injection
- aversive reactions set in
opponent process theory: addictive behavior
first opiate injection
- intense feeling of pleasure [a process]
- peak declines
opponent process theory: addictive behavior
aversive reactions set in:
- nausea
- insomnia
- irritability
- anxiety
- inability to eat
- other physical problems
opponent process theory: addictive behavior
tolerance
- decrease in the effects of a drug with repeated use
- strengthened b process