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11 terms

Science Chapter 6 Test

Section 1 and 2 vocabulary
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DNA
a molecule that is present in all living cells and that contains the information that determines the traits that a living thing inherits and needs to live.
Nucleotide
in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.
Double Helix
The shape of DNA; looks like a twisted ladder.
Gene
consists of a string of nucleotides that give the cell information about how to make a specific trait.
RNA
a molecule that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein production.
Ribosome
a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis.
Mutation
a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule.
Deletion
when a base is left out.
Insertion
when a base is added.
Substitution
most common; when the wrong base is used.
Genetic Engineering
the manipulation of individual genes within organisms.