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Section 1 and 2 vocabulary


a molecule that is present in all living cells and that contains the information that determines the traits that a living thing inherits and needs to live.


in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.

Double Helix

The shape of DNA; looks like a twisted ladder.


consists of a string of nucleotides that give the cell information about how to make a specific trait.


a molecule that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein production.


a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis.


a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule.


when a base is left out.


when a base is added.


most common; when the wrong base is used.

Genetic Engineering

the manipulation of individual genes within organisms.

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