74 terms

Earth and Space review

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What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere
Nitrogen
The triatomic form of oxygen is known as
Ozone
At noon of February 21, the sun is overhead
At some point between the tropic of Capricorn and the equator, heading northward
On average, how much of the sun's energy that is intercepted by Earth is reflected back to space
30%
Ozone filters out most of the _______radiation in sunlight
Ultraviolet
When the temperature in the atmosphere reaches the __________, condensation occurs
dew point
The warmer the air the_____ water vapor it can hold
more
As air increases in altitude, pressure
decreases
As air temperature decreases with altitude, relative humidity______ to form clouds
Increases
What is the transfer of energy through space by visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and other forms of electromagnetic waves
Radiation
What is the transfer of energy that occurs when molecules collide
conduction
What is the transfer of energy by the flow of heated substances
Convection
The layer between the stratosphere and thermosphere
mesosphere
The layer in which most pollution occurs
Troposphere
The atmosphere's outermost layer
Exosphere
Layer within the thermosphere filled with electrically charged particles
Ionosphere
The part of the atmosphere containing the ozone layer
Stratosphere
Air temperatures in this layer can reach higher than 1000 degrees C
Thermosphere
True or False: A Category 2 hurricane on the saffir-simpson hurricane scale is more dangerous than a category 5 hurricane
false
An air mass from the gulf of mexico is labeled
mT
a cT air mass is
warm and dry
an mP air mass is
cold and humid
The rising, moist up drafts and falling, cool downdrafts form a convection cell that produces the ___associated with thunderstorms
gusty surface winds
when friction between updrafts and downdrafts within a cumulonimbus cloud creates regions of air with opposite charges, ______forms
lightening
______ are often associated with severe thunderstorms called supercell
tornados
a mound of water driven toward coastal areas by hurricane winds called a
storm surge
after a mature cyclone passes, you should expect
barometric pressure to rise
usually _____fronts produce several hours of moderate-to-gentle precipation over a large region
Warm
when an active cold front overtakes a warm front
an occluded front forms
Which of the following conditions does NOT contribute to the formation of hail
the dissipation of warm, moist air at Earth's surface by downdrafts
Western Pacific Ocean
Typhoon
gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean
hurricane
Indian ocean
cyclone
winds exceeding 74 mph
hurricane
Area of low-level convergence and lifting. these zones of convective activity usually die out
tropical disturbance
wind speeds do not exceed 38 mph
tropical depression
wind speeds are between 38 and 74 mph and it is during this phase that a name is given
tropical storm
characterized by sinking air
high pressure system
characterized by rising air
low pressure system
air flows toward the center
low pressure system
Air moves clockwise in the northern hemisphere
low pressure system
associated with clouds and precipitation
low pressure system
what part of the hurricane produces the greatest damage
eye wall
2 things that weaken a hurricane
cold water and land
the intense updrafts and downdrafts the characterize severe thunderstorms are the result of
unstable air caused by temperature differences between the upper and lower parts of the storm
The cloud that is best described as sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky
stratus
the cloud form that consists of globular cloud masses that take on billowy or cauliflower-like structure
cumulus
clouds found in the middle height range
alto
high clouds that form delicate veil-like patches or extend wispy fibers
cirrus
this term is used to describe clouds that produce precipitation
nimbo
these clouds are often called fair weather clouds
cumulus
thunder and lightning are associated with these clouds
cumulonimbus
A halo around the sun or the moon indicates that this type is present
cirrostratus
a dark gray cloud that blankets the sky and often generates precipitation
nimbostratus
hail is most commonly associated with
cumulonimbus
this fog forms in valleys at night
radiation
when warm moist air moves over a cold surface____ fog may result
advection
the change of state from a gas to a solid is termed
deposition
the change of state from a solid to a gas is termed
sublimation
when super cooled raindrops freeze on contact with solid objects _________forms
glaze
standard sea level
1013mb
The force that generates wind is
pressure gradient force
lines on a weather map connecting places of equal air pressure are called
isobars
closely spaced isobars indicate
high winds
the Coriolis effect influences
only wind direction
high pressure systems are usually associated with
all of these
Low pressure systems are usually associated with
precipitation
If fair weather is approaching, the pressure tendency would probably be
rising
most of the united states is situated in which zone of prevailing winds
westerlies
A sea breeze usually originate during the ____
day and flows toward the land
A land breeze usually originate durning the
evening and flows toward the water
Fast moving currents of air found near the top of the troposphere are called
jet streams
What is the technical name for high pressure center
anticyclone
what global wind zone flows from the subtropics toward the equator
trade winds
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