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46 terms

Chapter 8 Set 1

STUDY
PLAY
DNA
Chromosomes contain ___.
segments
genes are ___ of DNA.
nucleotides, backbone, base
DNA is a macromolecule of repeating, with ___ a sugar/phosphate ___, and a nitrogenous ___ attached to the sugar (G-C, A-T).
bases
DNA ___ attach via weak H bonds.
replication
___ of DNA is possible because the base pairs are complementary (and so can be copied) and the sugar-phosphate backbones are anti-parallel like 2 one way streets.
Induction
___ turns the transcription of a gene on.
prokaryote
___ E.coli preferentially fulfills its energy requirements with glucose, if both glucose and lactose are available.
lac operon
__ ___ allows for metabolism of lactose in E.coli, is regulated both positively and negatively.
repression
___ inhibits gene expressions & decreases enzyme synthesis.
tryptophan
___ will act as a co-repressor and turn the system that normally produces tryptophan "off" to conserve energy.
transformation
DNA fragments ("naked DNA") from dead bacteria will get picked up by similar (not necessarily identical) surviving bacteria, which starts the ___ of DNA.
transduction
___ involves a "phage" (virus that attacks bacteria) that replicates, and bacterial chromosome is broken into pieces, and may get packaged into the phage capsid, so when it infects a new host cell, it brings the bacterial genetic matter with it.
recombination
___is possible, & new cell will differ from phage & bacteria
conjugation horizontal
___ ___ is the formation of sex pillus (common with G-), sticky membrane allowing for transfer of material thru membrane (G+), forming a plasmid.
conjugation vertical
___ ___ is cell division.
mutation
___ are the most common change in the base sequence of DNA, may result in a change to the product such as it being less active or inactive, but many are "silent" neutral (no observable change in function).
degeneracy
most amino acids have several alternative codons, and certain amount of change is built in, so mutation can happen without changing the protein being produced, this is called ___ of code
missense
a ___ mutation is a AA substitution in a synthesized protein & can have dramatic impact (ex: sickle cell).
nonsense
a ___ mutation is a stop codon in the middle of mRNA and synthesizes only a fragment of a protein.
frameshift
a ___ mutation shifts the translational reading frame, and always results in a long string altered AA & an inactive protein. (mutagen: benzopyrene in smoke, aflatoxin in peanut/grain mold)
huntington's
___ is caused by extra bases being inserted into a gene.
spontaneous
___ mutations have no precipitating environmental event.
mutagens
___ directly or indirectly cause mutations.
nitrous acid
___ ___ causes A to pair with C.
Nucleoside analog
___ ___ when given to growing cells, they are randomly incorporated into DNA and cause mistakes in base pairing.
nucleotidenucleoside
DNA molecule consist of a ___ & a ___.
nucleotide
a ___ is a sugar, phosphate & base together.
nucleoside
a ___ is a sugar and a base.
nucleoside analog
___ ___ is a close copy used as a drug to prevent viral replication (viral material is then made incorrectly).
double, single
DNA is a ___ strand (helix) & RNA (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA) is a ___ strand.
deoxyribose, ribose
DNA contains ___, & RNA contains ___.
CG, AT, CG, AU
DNA bases are __ & __, and RNA bases are __ & __.
DNA
many RNA codons code for the same amino acid so if ___ alters, it will most likely still code for the same thing.
harmful
Some mutations are ___ (ex: UV rays; sacrin in fake sugar), some of these don't get turned on until some point in life (ex: breast cancer).
beneficial
bacteria and viruses experience mutations that increase resistance, pathogenicity and virulence (strength), which can be ___.
translocation
___ is the exchange of genetic material between nonhomologous chromosomes (like pairing one shoe with a different match).
DNA
specific nucleotide sequence recognizable to proteins initiates ___ replication).
strands
___ separate & form replication bubbles with 2 forks.
relaxes
topoisomerase or gyrase ___ the tightly coiled DNA
helicase
___ unwinds DNA & separates it one small segment at a time.
proteins
___ stabilize the parental DNA segments.
polymerases
DNA ___ synthesize DNA, but cannot directly synthesize polynucleotides, they can only add nucleotides to the free 3' (OH) end.
leading, lagging
DNA is separated into 2 strands, the ___ made in the 5' to 3' direction continuously and ___ strand has to be 3' to 5'.
replication fork, RNA, DNA
leading strand replication proceeds toward the ___ ___ beginning with ___ primer being synthesized at the 5' end & DNA polymerase removes the RNA primer and replces it with ___ (synthesized continuously).
ligase
DNA ___ joins the 3' end of the replaced RNA primer to the rest of the leading strand.
lagging, Okazaki, RNA primer, polymerase, DNA, ligase
the ___ strand elongates away from the replication fork in a series of segments known as ___ fragments (synthesizes discontinuously), ___ ___ is synthesized at each fragment, DNA ___ adds nucleotides up to the next fragment and the process repeats, RNA primer is replaced with ___, added to the free 3'OH end of the closest Okazaki fragment, DNA ___ joins all of the fragments & mismatches are repaired.