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256 terms

pharm drugs

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bronchodilators
mechanism of action: relax bronchial smooth muscle bands to dilate the bronchi and bronchioles that are narrowed as a result of the disease process.
bronchodilators
broad class of drugs with indication: COPD, asthma
beta agonist
albuterol (e.g. Ventolin)
beta agonist
formoterol (Foradil)
beta agonist
epinephrine
beta agonist
metaproterenol (Alupent)
beta agonist
salmetrol (Serevent)
beta agonist
ephedrine
beta agonist
lavalbuterol (Xopenex)
beta agonist
pirbuterol (Maxair)
beta agonist
terbutaline (Brethine)
beta agonist
drug class mechanism of action: raise intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate, which in turn produces smooth muscle relaxation and dilates the constricted bronchi and bronchioles
beta agonist
drug class indication: acute phase of asthma attack, bronchospasm related to bronchial asthma, pulmonary diseases
beta agonist
drug class side effects: mixed alpha/beta: insomnia, restlessness, anorexia, cardiac stimulation, hyperglycemia, tremor, vascular headache;
beta: cardiac stimulation, tremor, anginal pain, vascular headache
beta2: hyper/hypotension, vasuclar headaches, tremor
anticholinergic
ipratropium
anticholinergic
tiotropium
anticholinergic
drug mechanism of action: block ACh receptor to prevent bronchoconstriction. indirectly causes airway dilation. (cholinergic substances cause constriction and increase secretions)
anticholinergic
drug class indication: prevention of bronchospasm associated with chronic bronchitis or emphysema
anticholinergic
drug side effects: dry mouth/throat; nasal congestion; heart palpitations; GI distress; urinary retention; increase intraocular pressure; headache; coughing; anxiety
xanthine derivatives
caffeine
xanthine derivatives
theobromine *not currently used clinically
xanthine derivatives
theophylline
xanthine derivatives
drug class mechanism of action: raise intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (Camp), which in turn produces smooth muscle relaxation and dilates the constricted bronchi and bronchioles
xanthine derivatives
drug class indication: COPD; asthma; chronic bronchitis; emphysema; cardiac stimulant in infants with bradycardia
xanthine derivatives
drug class side effects: most common: nausea, vomiting, anorexia; others: gastroesophageal reflux during sleep; sinus tachycardia; extrasystolic palpitations; ventricular dysrhythmias; increased urination; hyperglycermia
leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs)
1st subclass: zileuton (Zyflo)
leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs)
2nd subclass: montelukast (Singulair)
leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs)
2nd subclass: zafirlukast (Accolate)
leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs)
drug class mechanism of action: through reduction of leukotriene synthesisor action, they prevent smooth muscle contraction of bronchial airways, lowers mucus and lowers vascular permeability
leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs)
drug class indication: prophylaxis and long-term asthma treatment; allergic rhinitis
leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs)
drug class side effects: 1st class: headaches; dyspepsia; nausea; dizziness; insomnia; 2nd class: above + diarrhea
corticosteroids
beclomethasone dipropionate (Beclovent)
corticosteroids
budesonide (Pulmicort Turbunahaler)
corticosteroids
dexamethasone sodium phosphate (Decadron Phosphate Respihaler)
corticosteroids
flunisolide (AeroBid)
corticosteroids
fluticasone (Flonase)
corticosteroids
triamcinolone acetonide (Azmacort)
corticosteroids
prednisone (oral)
corticosteroids
methylprednisone (IV or oral)
corticosteroids
drug class mechanism of action: exact mechanism UNK; possibly the dual effect of lowering inflammation and increasing activity of beta agonists
corticosteroids
drug class indication: acute/severe asthma; primary treatment of bronchospastic disorders
corticosteroids
drug class side effects: not recommended long-term; pharyngeal irritation; coughing; dry mouth; oral fungal infections; adrenocorticol insufficiency; increased susceptibility to infection; fluid/electrolyte disturbances; endocrine effects; CNS effects; patient death if not weaned to inhaled
antihistamine
brompheniramine
antihistamine
chlorpheniramine
antihistamine
dexchlorpheniramine
antihistamine
clemastine
antihistamine
diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
antihistamine
dimenhydrinate
antihistamine
pyrilamine
antihistamine
promethazine
antihistamine
azatadine
antihistamine
cyproheptadine
antihistamine
hydroxyzine
antihistamine
phenindamine
antihistamine
fexotenadine
antihistamine
loratadine (Claritin)
antihistamine
drug class mechanism of action: directly competes with histamine for specific receptor sites to (1) reduce dilation of blood vessels and (2) reduce salivary, gastric, lacrimal, and bronchial secretions
antihistamine
drug class indication: allergic reactions; some cold symptoms; motion sickness; Parkinson's Disease; sleep aid
antihistamine
drug class side effects: drowsiness!! anticholinergic (drying) effects: cause dry mouth, change in vision, difficulty urinating, constipation
decongestant
ephedrine
decongestant
oxymetazoline
decongestant
phenylephrine
decongestant
tetrahydrozoline
decongestant
naphazoline (Privine)
decongestant
beclomethasone dipropionate (Beconase)
decongestant
budesonide (Rhinocort)
decongestant
flunisolide (Nasalide)
decongestant
fluticasone (Flonase)
decongestant
triamcinolone (Nasacort)
decongestant
ipratropium nasal spray (Atrovent)
decongestant
drug mechanism of action: shrink engorged nasal mucus membranes and relieve nasal stuffiness (by constricting small arterioles or by lowering inflammatory response elicited by invading organisms)
decongestant
drug class indication: acute/chronic rhinitis; common cold; sinusitis; hay fever; other allergies
decongestant
drug class side effects: nervousness; insomnia; palpitations; tremor
antitussive
opioid: codeine
antitussive
opioid: hydrocodone
antitussive
non-opiod: benzonate
antitussive
non-opiod: dextromethorphan
antitussive
mechanism of action, opioid: affect cough center in CNS (medulla)
antitussive
mechanism of action, non-opioid): anesthetizes stretch receptor cells in respiratory tract, which prevents reflex stimulus of medulla cough center
antitussive
drug class indication: stop cough reflex when cough is nonproductive and/or harmful
antitussive
drug class side effects: dizziness; headaches; sedation; nausea; vomiting; lightheadedness
expectorant
guaifenesin (Mucinex)
expectorant
drug class mechanism of action: reflex stimulation - irritates GI tract, which loosens/thins respiratory tract secretions
expectorant
drug class indications: relief of productive cough caused by common cold, bronchitis; laryngitis; pharyngitis; pertussis; influenza; measles
expectorant
drug class side effects: nausea; vomiting; GI irritations
ACE
benazepril (Lotensin)
ACE
captopril
ACE
enalapril (Vasotec)
ACE
fosinopril
ACE
lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril)
ACE
moexipril (Univasc)
ACE
perindopril (Aceon)
ACE
quinapril (Accupril)
ACE
ramipril (Altace)
ACE
trandolapril (Mavik)
ACE
drug class mech of action: relax blood vessels by inhibiting ACE from converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II
ACE
drug class indication: high BP, CAD, heart failure, diabetes, certain chronic kidney diseases, heart attacks, scleroderma, migraines
ACE
drug class side effects: fatigue, dizziness, mood changes, headaches; angioedema - life threatening in throat; can cause birth defects
Beta Blocker
class II C/V drug
Beta Blocker
acebutolol (Sectral)
Beta Blocker
atenolol (Tenormin)
Beta Blocker
bisoprolol (Zebeta)
Beta Blocker
metoprolol
Beta Blocker
nadolol (Corgard)
Beta Blocker
nebivolol (Bystolic)
Beta Blocker
propranolol (Inderal LA)
Beta Blocker
drug class mech of action: blocks the effects of epinephrine. heart beats more slowly and with less force.
Beta Blocker
drug class indications: high BP, arrhythmia; heart failure; angina; heart attacks; glaucoma; migraines; generalized anxiety disorder; hyperthyroidism
Beta Blocker
drug class adverse effects: decrease in heart rate, cardiac output, and cardiac contractility. cardiac rhythm problems
Calcium Channel Blocker
Class IV C/V drug
Calcium Channel Blocker
amlodipine (Norvasc)
Calcium Channel Blocker
diltiazem (Cardizem LA, Tiazac)
Calcium Channel Blocker
felodipine
Calcium Channel Blocker
isradipine (DynaCirc)
Calcium Channel Blocker
nicardipine (Cardene SR)
Calcium Channel Blocker
nifedipine (Procardia, Procardia XL, Adalat CC)
Calcium Channel Blocker
Nisoldipine (Sular)
Calcium Channel Blocker
verapamil (Calan, Verelan)
Calcium Channel Blocker
drug class mech of action: prevents Ca from entering cells of the heart and blood vessel walls; relaxes and widens blood vessels
Calcium Channel Blocker
drug class indication: high BP, angina, brain aneurysm complications, arrhythmia, migraines, Raynaud's Disease
Calcium Channel Blocker
drug class side effects: hypotension, palpitaions, tachycardia, bradycardia, constipation, nausea, dermatitis, dyspnea, rash, flushing, wheezing
Diuretic
chlorothiazide
Diuretic
hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide)
Diuretic
indapamide
Diuretic
metolazone
Loop Diuretic
bumetanide
Loop Diuretic
ethacrynic acid (Edecrin)
Loop Diuretic
furosemide (Lasix)
Loop Diuretic
torsemide (Demadex)
Osmotic Diuretic
Mannitol
Potassium-sparing Diuretic
amiloride
Potassium-sparing Diuretic
eplerenone (Inspra)
Potassium-sparing Diuretic
spironolactone (Aldactone)
Potassium-sparing Diuretic
triamterene (Dyrenium)
Diuretic
drug class mech of action: "water pills" makes kidneys put more sodium into your urine; helps rid your body of sodium
Diuretic
drug class indication: heart failure, edema, PCOS, kidney disorders, hypertension
Diuretic
drug class side effects: hypokalemia; dizziness, headaches, increase in thirst, muscle cramps, hyperglycemia, nausea, vomiting
Potassium Channel Blockers
amiadarone (Cordavone)
Potassium Channel Blockers
azimilide (stedicor)
Potassium Channel Blockers
bepridil
Potassium Channel Blockers
dofetilide (Tikosyn)
Potassium Channel Blockers
ibutilide (Corvert)
Potassium Channel Blockers
sotalol (Betapace)
Potassium Channel Blockers
tedisamil
Potassium Channel Blockers
mech of action: delays repolarization by binding to and blocking K channels
Potassium Channel Blockers
indication: ventricular tachycardia; atrial fibrillation and flutter
Potassium Channel Blockers
Side effects: cause complication in patients with heart block or SA node dysfunction
CAIs
acetazolamide
CAIs
dichlorphenamide
CAIs
methazolamide
CAIs
mech of action: inhibits hydrogen atom availability for sodium reabsorption in the kidneys
CAIs
indications: glaucoma, edema, high-altitude sickness
CAIs
side effects: metabolic abnormalities such as acidosis; hypokalemia....drowsiness, anorexia, paresthesias, hematuria, urticaria, photosensitivity, melena (blood in stool)
macrolide
azithromycin (Zithromax)
macrolide
erythromycin
macrolide
clarithromycin (Biaxin)
macrolide
dirithromycin (Dynabac)
macrolide
roxithromycin (Rulid, Surlid)
ketolide (macrolide)
telithromycin (Ketek)
macrolide
mech of action: bacteriostatic; inhibits protein synthesis by binding reversibly to the 50s ribosome
macrolide
indication: infections caused by S. pyogenes and H influenzae; syphilis, lyme disease, gonorrhea, chlamydia; mycoplasma
macrolide
side effects: allergic reactions, gi tract complications
penicillin
ampicillin/sulbactam (Unasyn)
penicillin
amozicillin/clavulanic acid (Augmentin)
penicillin
ticarcillin/clavulanic acid (Timentin)
penicillin
piperacillin/tazobacram (Zosyn)
penicillin
amoxicillin (Amoxil, Amoxicot, Biomax)
penicillin
dicloxacillin
penicillin
oxacillin (Bactocill)
penicillin
mech of action: bactericidal; inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis
penicillin
indication: kills gram pos and gram neg; prevention/treatment of infections
penicillin
side effects: allergic reactions; maculopapular rash, anaphylactic reaction
Cephalosporin 1st generation
celospor
Cephalosporin 1st generation
celtol
Cephalosporin 1st generation
cristacef
Cephalosporin 1st generation
duricef
Cephalosporin 1st generation
utracef
Cephalosporin 1st generation
keflex
Cephalosporin 1st generation
keftab
Cephalosporin 1st generation
kefglycin
Cephalosporin 1st generation
keflin
Cephalosporin 1st generation
cefadyl
Cephalosporin 2nd generation
ceclor
Cephalosporin 2nd generation
distaclor
Cephalosporin 2nd generation
keflor
Cephalosporin 2nd generation
mandol
Cephalosporin 2nd generation
monocid
Cephalosporin 2nd generation
cefotan
Cephalosporin 2nd generation
cefzil
Cephalosporin 2nd generation
cefin
Cephalosporin 3rd generation
omnicef
Cephalosporin 3rd generation
cefdiel
Cephalosporin 3rd generation
suprax
Cephalosporin 3rd generation
cefmax
Cephalosporin
mech of action: bactericidal; interferes with cell wall synthesis
Cephalosporin
indication: 1st gen: gram +; 2nd gen: anaerobic coverage; later gen: gram-
Cephalosporin
side effects: diarrhea; abdominal cramps; rash; pruritus; redness; edema; allergic reaction
sulfonamide
sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra, SMX-TMP)
sulfonamide
mechanism of action: inhibits bacterial growth by preventing bacterial synthesis of folic acid
sulfonamide
indication: broad spectrum, gram pos, gramp neg, UTIs
sulfonamide
side effects: allergy, fever, rash, photosensitivity, mucocutaneous reactions, GI reactions
tetracycline
democlocycline (Declomycin)
tetracycline
doxycycline (Doryx, Vibramycin)
tetracycline
minocycline (Minocin, monodox)
tetracycline
oxytetracycline (Terramycin)
tetracycline
Achromycin
glycylcycline
tigecycline (Tygacil)
tetracycline
mechanism of action: inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosome
tetracycline
indication: wide range of activity; many gram neg, some gram pos, some protozoans, chlamydia, mycoplasma, rickettsia, acne, cholera
tetracycline
side effects: discoloration of permanent teeth and teeth of fetus; photosensitivity; alteration of intestinal/vaginal flora; gastric upset
aminoglycoside
amikacin (Amikin)
aminoglycoside
gentamicin
aminoglycoside
kanamycin (Kantrex)
aminoglycoside
neomycin (Mycifradin)
aminoglycoside
netilmycin
aminoglycoside
paromomycin
aminoglycoside
streptomycin
aminoglycoside
tobramycin
aminoglycoside
mech of action: inhibits protein synthesis b y binding to 30S ribosome
aminoglycoside
indication: particulary virulent infections; serious gram neg infections
aminoglycoside
side effects: kidney toxicity; ear toxicity (hearing/balance); headache; paresthesia; vertigo; rash; fever
quinolone 1st gen
flubactin
quinolone 1st gen
NegGram
quinolone 1st gen
wintomylon
quinolone 1st gen
uroxin
quinolone 1st gen
panacid
quinolone 1st gen
dolcol
quinolone 1st gen
eradacil
quinolone 2nd gen
cipro
quinolone 2nd gen
enoxil
quinolone 2nd gen
penetrex
quinolone 2nd gen
maxaquil
quinolone 2nd gen
acuatim
quinolone 2nd gen
nadoxin
quinolone 2nd gen
nadixa
quinolone 2nd gen
uroflox
quinolone 3rd gen
baloxin
quinolone 3rd gen
tequin
quinolone 3rd gen
zymar
quinolone 3rd gen
raxar
quinolone 3rd gen
cravit
quinolone 3rd gen
avelox
quinolone 3rd gen
zagam
quinolone 4th gen
besivance
quinolone 4th gen
factive
quinolone 4th gen
gracevit
quinolone
mech of action: destroy bacteria by altering their DNA
quinolone
indication: mostly gram neg; some gram pos
quinolone
side effects: headaches, dizziness, fatigue, insomnia, depression, restlessness, convulsions, nausea, constipation, flatulence, heartburn, vomiting
carbapenem
mech of action: bactericidal by inhibiting cell wall synthesis
carbapenem
indication: often reserved for complicated body cavity and connective tissue infections in acutely ill hospital patients; effective on gram po
carbapenem
side effects: allergy, seizure activity
carbapenem
impenem/cilastatin (Primaxin)
carbapenem
meropenem (Merrem)
carbapenem
ertapenem (Invanz)
carbapenem
doripenem (Doribax)