during the ___________________ epoch, New Zealand experienced periods of glaciation which became increasingly more severe. _____________________ was widespread, forests were dominant only in _____________________. In the North Island, subalpine _____________________ was dominant south of Auckland, and in the South Island, _____________________ was widespread.
frugivory, attachment, flotation, wind
modes of plant dispersal in order of frequency (4)
podocarps, gymnosperm, 60
_____________________ have _____________________ leaves: they're small and scale-like, have parallel venation, and have __% of the photosynthetic efficiency of broadleaf Angiosperms.
Rimu, Kahikatea, Totara, Matai, and Miro are all examples of _________________. Miro is an exception because it's _____________________, whereas the first four are _____________________.
Puriri, Rewarewa, Kohekohe, Mangeao, Tawa, Kamahi, Manuka, and Kanuka are all examples of:
_____________________ pioneer small gaps.
Lake Taupo, Nuee Ardente, podocarps
_____________________ experienced _____________________ volcanic flow, giving the stress-tolerant _____________________ the advantage.
dense podocarp forest, emergents, Angiosperms
Whirinaki is a _____________________, unusually dominated by _____________________; _____________________ form the main canopy, trees are present but suppressed.
manuka, kanuka, podocarp, podocarp, natural thinning, podocarps, species composition
Large scale regeneration cycle: 1, _____________________/_____________________ scrub, abundant _____________________ seedlings; 2, _____________________ pole stage, stand depresses kanuka etc.; 3, _____________________ of _____________________ as they increase in height; 4, shift in _____________________
tree ferns, kamahi, tree ferns, Tawa, podocarp, podocarps
Gap regeneration cycle: 1, gap created by fall of large tree is colonized by _____________________; 2, _____________________ grows and suppresses the _____________________, _____________________ on gap margins, _____________________ seedlings beneath; 3, rapid growth of pole _____________________ to occupy gap
podocarps, hardwoods, beeches
As altitude increases, vegetation zonation is _____________________ -> _____________________ -> _____________________
pumice, broadleafs, podocarps
_____________________ substrate holds more water, thus producing more stressful conditions that _____________________ can't tolerate, but _____________________ can
Rimu, semi-shade-tolerant, mixed
*(relatively) _____________________ podocarp, _____________________-age stand, medium colonization length
*(relatively) _____________________ podocarp, _____________________-age stand, one cohort, shortest colonization length
Tawa, Kohekohe, gap-dependent, gaps, frost
*two strongly shade-tolerant broadleafs in Rotoehu Forest; not _____________________ for regeneration but rather negatively affected by __________________ due to ____________________ sensitivity.
Mangeao, Rewarewa, small gap, all
*two more light-demanding broadleafs in Rotoehu Forest; _____________________ specialists, seedlings of ______________ size class(es)
Tawa, Kamahi, Rimu, Miro, Tawa
*_____________________ dominant in Urewera National park, _____________________, _____________________, and _____________________ suppressed; fewer _____________________ at higher elevations, others increase in abundance
being from 200 million years ago, Kauri are an example of an _____________________.
Kauri are _____________________, creating alternate stable states.
alternate stable state
in presence of plant, like Kauri, the community is differently structured than in absence
two main competitors of Kauri
*two kauri associate species that experience depressed nutrient cycling
slow organic decay, litter, cup podsol, depressed
Kauri as an ecosystem engineer: _____________________ under Kauri causing the creation of a deep layer of _____________________; creation of a _____________________ underneath tree; _____________________ cycling
terpenes, waxes, phenols, inhibit bacteria and fungi
three methods to slow decay of Kauri litter and what these four methods do
_____________________ litter is thinner wheras _____________________ litter is generally thicker
cup podsol, acidic, neutralizes nutrients, leaching
*Kauri creates a _____________________: litter is _____________________, which _____________________ and flushes them deeper, promoting _____________________
nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate
Kauri depressed nutrient cycling converts _____________________ to _____________________ which is toxic for other plants, rather than _____________________ which is generally better for plants
1st Kauri cohort after disturbance: _____________________ phase due to lack of _____________________, followed by a _____________________ and mature phase due to intense _____________________. 2nd cohort: longer _____________________ phase without _____________________, part of 2nd cohort _____________________ replaced by _____________________ as Kauri retreat to _____________________.
retreated north, returned south, mean daily maximum temperature
*Kauri _____________________ during glaciation and _____________________ post-glaciation, because they require a _____________________ of 17 oC
Matai, softwood, self-preserved
_____________________ is a _____________________ that produces superior timber, a tall tree that's straight grained. Its timber is _____________________ and richly colored
Tawa, hardwood, decays faster, Red Beech, hardwood
_____________________ is a _____________________ that produces an inferior timber, a smaller log which _____________________. _____________________ is another example of a _____________________.
Nothofagus, erratic, best, collapsing residual
in north Westland, a remnant _____________________ forest, logging was _____________________ and piecemeal, targeting only the _____________________ trees, leaving a _____________________ stand.
decreased, increase, remained constant, increased, remained constant, disease, insect attack, pinhole borer
Managed beach forest dynamics: density _____________________, residual diameter _____________________, basal area _____________________, height and volume _____________________. After 100 years: volume _____________________, and stems are large enough to harvest and should be, rather than waiting for _____________________ or _____________________ (e.g. _____________________)
aggressive, more careful, Tawa, too small
*Tihoi: _____________________ harvest; Whirinaki: _____________________ harvest, improved stand stability, but regeneration by _____________________ because gaps created were _____________________ for podocarp regeneration.
coup felling, podocarps, large disturbance, stand senesence
*Saltwater Forest: Wetland silviculture model: _____________________, advantages valuable _____________________, mimics _____________________ regime, harvest just as _____________________ begins
_____________________ is the most valuable timber, attempted planting all over slopes (not just on _____________________), poor survival of planted juveniles in _____________________, _____________________ of competitors. this method is too _____________________ and _____________________, and therefore not feasible.
the modern view of silviculture holds that forests have greater _____________________ and _____________________ blue than they do as timber
most northerly, most lowland, often found in forest with kauri, abundant in lower montane of northern Southland, occurs in ecotonal forest with lowland species
largest, abundant in lower montane throughout Southland and Bay of Plenty, like hard beech, occurs in ecotonal forest with lowland species, can be found in mixed Podocarp forests
often grows with Mountain Beech, found in eastern NZ in foothills at ridge crest (where it's drier), poor soil specialists, mixed with lowland spp. in lower montane
often grows with Black Beech, high elevation, lower to upper montane, found in drier east central North Island southwards
found in wetter west, Bay of Plenty southwards, high rainfall, lower to upper montane, forming treeline
Silver beeches are _______________ (light-damanding/shade-tolerant) and structured in __________ (mixed/even) -age stands.
Beech forest tree species diversity _____________ as altitude (and stress) increases, but not herb and shrub spp. diversity
*Beech forest spp. diversity ______________ as rainfall decreases
Black beeches are _______________ (light-damanding/shade-tolerant) and structured in __________ (mixed/even) -age stands.
Mountain beeches are _______________ (light-damanding/shade-tolerant) and structured in __________ (mixed/even) -age stands.
Hard beeches are _______________ (light-damanding/shade-tolerant) and structured in __________ (mixed/even) -age stands.
Red beeches are _______________ (light-damanding/shade-tolerant) and structured in __________ (mixed/even) -age stands.
increase, level out
*during periods of stand development, biomass tends to first ______________ and then __________________ as the stand reaches maturity.
even-aged in distinct groups
*in Saltwater Forest, the stand structure that facilitated coup-felling was: