What percent of American children currently live in poverty?
About 15 percent of all children live in poverty and in some areas of the country that number approaches 25 percent
Know the 4 categories of family dysfunction.
families disrupted by spousal conf ict or breakup (family breakup), families involved in interpersonal conf ict (family conf ict), ineffective parents who lack proper parent-
ing skills (family effectiveness), and families that contain deviant parents who may transmit their behavior to their children (family deviance)
What best describes a blended family?
Nuclear families that are the product of divorce and remarriage, blending one parent from each of two families
and their combined children into one family unit.
The study of more than 4000 youths found that the more often a child is forced to go through family transitions. Whats likely to occur?
They are more likely to engage in deliquent activity.
Know about the gender specific effects of divorce.
Boys seem to be more affected by the post-divorce absence of the father. Girls are more affected by both the quality of the mother's parenting and post-divorce parental conflict.
What are the factors present in playing a rold in intergenerational deviance?
Any physical, emotional, or sexual trauma to a child, including neglecting to give proper care and attention, for
which no reasonable explanation can be found.
Passive neglect by a parent or guardian, depriving children of food, shelter, health care, and love.
includes throwing, shooting, stabbing, burning, drowning, suffocating, biting, or deliberately disf guring a child. Included within this category is shaken-baby syndrome
(SBS), a form of child abuse affecting between 1,200 and 1,600 children every year. SBS is a collection of signs and symptoms resulting from violently shaking an infant or child.83
results from parents' failure to provide adequate food, shelter, or medical care for their children, as well as failure to protect them from physical danger.
is manifested by constant criticism and rejection of the child.84 Those who suffer emotional abuse have signif cantly lower self-esteem as adults.
includes inadequate nurturing, inattention to a child's emotional development, and lack of concern about maladaptive behavior.
refers to the situation in which parents leave their children with the intention of severing the parent-child relationship.
refers to the exploitation of children through rape, incest, or molestation by parents, family members, friends, or legal guardians. Sexual abuse can vary from rewarding children for sexual behavior that is inappropriate
for their level of development to using force or the threat of force for the purposes of sex. It can involve children who are aware of the sexual content of their actions and others too young to have any idea what their actions mean
Maltreatment encourages children to use ________ as a means of solving problems and prevents them from feeling empathy for others.
Know what a Guardian Ad Littem is
a lawyer appointed by the court to look after the interests of those who do not have the capacity to assert their own
Case of Troxel vs. Grandville did what?
the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the due process clause of the Constitution protects against government interference with certain fundamental rights and liberty interests, including parents' fundamental right to make decisions concerning the care, custody, and control of their children. the state may take action to remove a child from the home and place her or him in a less threatening environment.
What are controversial status youths?
Aggressive kids who are either highly liked or intensly disliked by their peers and who are the ones most likely to become engaged in antisocial behavior.
What is co-offending?
Research shows that peer group relations are closely tied to delinquent behaviors; deliquent acts tend to be committed in small groups rather than alone, process referred to as co-offending.
Know about the impact of peer relations.
In later adolescence, acceptance by peers has a major impact on socialization. By their early teens, children report that their friends give them emotional support when
they are feeling bad and that they can confide intimate feelings to peers without worrying about their confidences being betrayed
How is a clique transformed into a gang?
As youths move through adolescence, they gravitate toward cliques that provide them with support, assurance, protection, and direction. In some instances, the peer
group provides the social and emotional basis for antisocial activity. When this happens, the clique is transformed into a gang.
Klien notes that even the most criminal gang members spend the bulk of their time doing what?
in noncriminal activities
London was terrorized by organized gangs that call themselves what? and in what period of time?
In the 1600s, London was terrorized by organized gangs that called themselves Hectors
Involved in few delinquent activities and little drug use other than alcohol and marijuana. Members are more interested in social activities.
Concentrates on drug use and sales but forgoes most delinquent behavior. Drug sales are designed to f nance members' personal drug use.
Serious delinquent gang
Engages in serious delinquent behavior while avoiding
drug dealing and usage. Drugs are used only on social occasions.
Heavily involved in criminality. Drug use and sales are related to other criminal acts. Gang violence is used to establish control over drug sale territories. This gang is on the verge of becoming a formal criminal organization.