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Must contain a subject and a verb but will not express a complete idea, will take the place of a noun, meaning that you can test for a noun clause by replacing it with a pronoun (usually it, someone, or something)
noun clause example
Whoever rang the doorbell has dissappeared (subject)
The question was whether or not we should arrive early (subjective complement)
Contains a subject and a verb, answers an adverb question: when?, where?, why?, how?, can usually be moved to another location without changing the meaning of the sentence, beings with a subordinating conjunction (after, although, unless, before, because, etc.)
adverb clause example
Because Erin read the book, she wanted to see the movie
Erin wanted to see the movie, although she had read the book
Contains a subject and a verb, relates to or modifies the noun that it follows, can be introduced by a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, that), necessary information and unnecessary information. I overuse adjective clauses!
adjective clause example
A bouquet of flowers, which can express many thoughts, speaks eloquently
A bouquet of flowers that arrives on time can prevent an argument
The guide we met at the aquarium was knowledgeable
adjective clause diagrammed
Like the adverb clause, place the relative (adjective) clause on a second tier below the independent clause, dotted line from relative pronoun or adverb connecting to noun it modifies, nothing written on dotted line
complex-compound sentence example
Anna, who is my neighbor, works in Philadelphia, but her husband works in Denver.
Anna works in Philadelphia - Independent clause
her husband works in Denver - Independent clause
who is my my neighbor - Dependent clause (adjective)
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