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The practice of not providing loans or insurance in what are deemed undesirable areas, typically made up of high concentrations of poor minorities and located in the central cities.
Patterns of disinvestment and investment that have resulted from redlining in US metropolitan areas have been discriminated by...
race and place
The redevelopment of poor and working-class urban neighborhoods into middle- and upper-middle-class enclaves; often involves displacement of original residents.
Landlords buy properties in poor neighborhoods for rent income. They do not maintain these properties b/c to do so would lower their profits.
The withholding of apartments from the housing market by speculators who hope to sell them at a profit to developers.
The inability of central-city residents most in need of decent jobs to reach them on the urban fringe b/c 1) they cannot afford to operate a private automobile, and 2) the public transportation system is in adequate; moving to the urban fringe is not an option because of housing costs and racial segregation.
To the extent that jobs and job growth occur in one place-affluent that jobs and job growth occur in one place-affluent and White areas-and poor Blacks or Latinos are restricted to another, this "mismatch" is a form of spatial apartheid.
The physical separation of Whites and nonwhites with Whites located where jobs and job growth are found and nonwhites located where they are not.
The tendency for poor and minority areas in cities and metropolitan areas to be the targets of a disproportionate share of illegal dumping and the sites where most toxic and azardous waste is disposed; these communities also suffer, as compared to more affluent White communities, from lax enforcement of environmental regulations.
The practice in understaffed and under financed public hospitals of treating the most urgent emergencies first, thereby delaying the treatment of other cases.
When opportunities are not present in the regular legal economy, people in poor inner-city neighborhoods often turn to this alternate economic exchange and activity for survival;much of the informal economy is illegal activity involving crime and drug trafficking.
The movement of predominantly upper-middle class, middle-class, and working-class Whites from the central cities to the suburbs.
A suburban city of at least 100,000 that has experienced double-digit growth each decade since it became urban.
Effects of suburbanization and sprawl
1) Environmental effects such as the disruption of wildlife habitats, the altering of rivers and streams, and pollution.
2) "Draining of the center while flooding the edges"
3) The economic costs of all this suburbanization, deconcentration, and sprawl are extremely high.
4) Health concerns
1) former farmers must find a new occupations, and the opportunities
2)young people are formed to leave the community for nonagricultural jobs
3) with the loss of people and their resources, many local communities decline in importance and function
4) rural communities have become increasingly stratified with a few large-scale farmers at the top, small farmers barely getting by, and farm workers at the bottom making very meager wages without benefits.
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