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name for the depiction of the membrane structure; it exhibits a fluid because lipids and proteins can move relative to each other within the membrane and is a basic mosaic of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate molecules
integral membrane protein
another name for the intrinsic membrane protein; cannot be released from the membrane unless the membrane is dissolved with an organic solvent or detergent
most common type of integral membrane protein; has one or more regions that are physically inserted into the hydrophobic region of the phospholipid bilayer
lipid anchored protein
a type of integral membrane that has a lipid molecule conveniently attached to an amino acid side chain within the protein
peripheral membrane proteins
extrinsic proteins; do not interact with the hydrophobic interior, but are non-covalently bound to regions of the integral membrane proteins that project outwards from the membrane or are bound to polar head groups of phospholipids
function of the plasma membrane which ensures that essential molecules like glucose and amino acids enter the cell while metabolic intermediates remain and waste is forced to exit
a method of allowing substance to move across membranes; a transport protein provides a passageway for the substance to cross the membrane
the transport of a substance across a membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration; does not require input of energy
movement from an area of high concentration to low concentration or against a concentration gradient with the aid of a transport protein
when a concentration of a solute is higher on one side of a membrane than the other
a dual gradient that has both electrical and chemical components; occurs with solutes that have a net positive or negative charge
the process in which water diffuses across a membrane from the hypotonic compartment into the hypertonic compartment
when water exits the cells via osmosis and equalizes solute concentrations on both sides of the cell membrane, causing them to shrink
osmotic pressure; the hydrostatic pressure required to stop the net flow of water across a membrane due to osmosis
transmembrane protein that provides a passageway for the movement of ion and hydrophilic molecules across the membranes; play major role in selective permeability
gated; forms an open passageway for the facilitated diffusion of ions or molecules across the membrane (solutes move directly through to get to the other side)
cotransporter; binds two or more ions or molecules and transports the in the same direction
primary active transport
involved the functioning of a pump (a type of transporter that directly uses energy to transport a solute against a gradient)
secondary active transport
involved the use of pre-existing gradient to drive the active transport of another solute
when material inside the cell is packaged into vesicles and then excreted into the extracellular environment (vesicles derived from Golgi apparatus)
the plasma membrane invaginates (fold inward) to form a vesicle that brings substances into the cell
form of endocytosis; a receptor in the plasma membrane is specific for a given cargo
formation of membrane vesicles from the plasma membrane as a way for cells to internalize the extracellular fluid (small substances)
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