25 terms

Biology Final Ch 18

binomial nomenclature
a two-word naming system
a group of similar species
the science of naming and grouping organisms
taxa (taxon)
groups that have biological meaning
in classification, group of similar genera
in classification, a group of closely related families
in classification, a group of closely related orders
in classification, a group of closely related classes
largest and most inclusive group in Linnaean classification
what are the goals of bionomial nomenclature and systematics?
-each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
-organize living things into groups that have biological meaning
how did Linneaus group species into a larger taxa?
-seven hierarchial taxa: species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, and kingdom
the history of evolutionary lineages
a group of species that includes a single common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor-linving and extinctq
monophyletic group
group that includes a single common ancestor of all of its descendants and excludes any organisms that arent descended from that common ancestor
diagram depicting patterns of shared characteristics among species
derived character
a trait that arose in the more recent common ancestor of a particular lineage that was passed along to its descendants
what is the goal of evolutionary classification?
to group specvies into larger categories that reflect lines of evolutionary descent, rather than overall similarites
what is a cladogram?
links groups of organisms by showing off how evolutionary lines/lineages branched off from common ancestors
how are DNA sequences used in classification?
the more derived genetic characters two species share, the more recently they shared a common ancerstor and the more the closely they are related in evolutionary terms
a larger, more incluisve category than a kingdom
domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycan; corresponds to the kingdom eubacteria
domain consisting of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that dont contain peptidoglycan; corresponds to kingdom Archaebateria
domain consisting of all organisms that have a nucleus; includes protists, plants, fungi, and animals
what are the six kingdoms of life as they are now identified?
Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
what does the tree of life show?
shows current hypotheses regarding evolutionary relationships among the taxa within the three domains of life