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25 terms

Biology Final Ch 18

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binomial nomenclature
a two-word naming system
genus
a group of similar species
systematics
the science of naming and grouping organisms
taxa (taxon)
groups that have biological meaning
family
in classification, group of similar genera
order
in classification, a group of closely related families
class
in classification, a group of closely related orders
phylum
in classification, a group of closely related classes
kingdom
largest and most inclusive group in Linnaean classification
what are the goals of bionomial nomenclature and systematics?
-each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
-organize living things into groups that have biological meaning
how did Linneaus group species into a larger taxa?
-seven hierarchial taxa: species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, and kingdom
phylogeny
the history of evolutionary lineages
clade
a group of species that includes a single common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor-linving and extinctq
monophyletic group
group that includes a single common ancestor of all of its descendants and excludes any organisms that arent descended from that common ancestor
cladogram
diagram depicting patterns of shared characteristics among species
derived character
a trait that arose in the more recent common ancestor of a particular lineage that was passed along to its descendants
what is the goal of evolutionary classification?
to group specvies into larger categories that reflect lines of evolutionary descent, rather than overall similarites
what is a cladogram?
links groups of organisms by showing off how evolutionary lines/lineages branched off from common ancestors
how are DNA sequences used in classification?
the more derived genetic characters two species share, the more recently they shared a common ancerstor and the more the closely they are related in evolutionary terms
domain
a larger, more incluisve category than a kingdom
bacteria
domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycan; corresponds to the kingdom eubacteria
archaea
domain consisting of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that dont contain peptidoglycan; corresponds to kingdom Archaebateria
eukarya
domain consisting of all organisms that have a nucleus; includes protists, plants, fungi, and animals
what are the six kingdoms of life as they are now identified?
Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
what does the tree of life show?
shows current hypotheses regarding evolutionary relationships among the taxa within the three domains of life