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Chapter 12- Middle Ages

1. What impact did the Vikings raids have on Europe? 2. Explain the contract between lord and vassal. 3. What was the conflict between Henry 5th and Pope Gregory VII? 4. What held feudal society together?
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Middle Ages
The period in western European history from the fall of the Roman Empire until 1450.
Charlemagne
Frank king that spread Christianity in Western Europe.
feudalism
A political and social system developed for protection based on agreements between lords and vassals
lord
in the middle ages, a noble who owned and controlled all activities on his manor
serf
a member of the lowest feudal class, bound to the land and whoever owned the land
manor
A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.
knight
an armed, mounted soldier of the feudal period who gives military service to a lord
chivalry
a knight's code of honor
vassal
a noble who held land from and served a higher-ranking lord, and in return was given protection
monarch
A ruler, such as a king or queen
clergy
persons with authority to perform religious services
lay investiture
the appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles
excommunication
When a person is kicked out or banished from the church.
classical
relating to ancient Greece and Rome
Crusades
A series of military expeditions launched by Christian Europeans to win the Holy land back from Muslim control.
Holy Land
Jerusalem and parts of the surrounding area where Jesus lived and taught
fief
land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service
Magna Carta
A legal document written by English nobles in 1215 that stated certain rights and limited the power of the King
parliament
a group of representatives in English government that controlled taxation.
independent judiciary
limits the power of government with a system of judges and courts that is separate from other branches of government.
habeas corpus
a right of protection against unlawful imprisonment