Blinn Biology 1406 Ch. 11 Vocab
Terms in this set (24)
A process in which a concentration of signaling molecules allows bacteria to sense local population density.
When animal cells communicate by direct contact.
In animal and plant cells; directly connect cytoplasm of adjacent cells.
When animal cells communicate using secreted messenger molecules that travel only short distances; type of local signaling.
Occurs in the animal nervous system when a neurotransmitter is released in response to an electric signal; type of local signaling.
When plants and animals use chemicals called hormones for cell communication.
Hormonal signaling in animals; specialized cells release hormones, which travel to target cells via the circulatory system.
The first step in cell signaling; target cell detects a signaling molecule that binds to a receptor protein on the cell surface.
The second step in cell signaling; binding of the signaling molecule alters the receptor and initiates a signal transduction pathway; often a series of steps.
The third step in cell signaling; transduced signal triggers a specific reaction in the target cell.
G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs)
Cell surface transmembrane receptors that work with the help of a G protein.
Bind the energy-rich GTP; all very similar in structure.
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs)
Membrane receptors that attach phosphates to tyrosine a; can trigger multiple signal pathways at once.
Ligand-Gated Ion Channel
Receptor that acts as a gate when the receptor changes shape.
Intracellular Receptor Proteins
Found in the cytoplasm or nucleus of target cells.
Process in which protein kinases transfer phosphates from ATP to protein.
Process in which protein phosphatases rapidly remove the phosphates from proteins.
Small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecules or ions that spread throughout a cell by diffusion; participate in pathways initiated by GPCRs and RTKs.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP)
One of the most widely used second messengers triggered by many signal molecules; usually activates protein kinase A; role in G protein signaling pathways in disease.
An enzyme in the plasma membrane that converts ATP to cAMP in response to an extracellular signal.
Function as a second messenger because its concentration in the cytosol is normally much lower than the concentration outside the cell.
The cell's response to an extracellular signal.
Large relay proteins to which other relay proteins are attached; can increase signal transduction efficiency by grouping together different proteins involved in the same pathway.
Best understood type of "programmed cell death"; components of the cell are chopped up & packaged into vesicles that are digested by scavenger cells; prevents enzymes from leaking out of a dying cell & damaging neighboring cells.
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