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SLWZ chapter 7&8 Surface Disinfection and Treatment Room Preparation Key Terms

Chapter 7 Key Terms Surface Disinfection Instrument Processing
STUDY
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Alcohol
A transparent colorless liquid that is mobile and volatile. Alcohols are organic compounds formed from hydrocarbons by the substitution of hydroxyl radicals for the same number of hydrogen atoms.
Antiseptic
Substances for killing microorganisms on the skin.
Bioburden
Blood, saliva, and other body fluids.
Biofilm
Slime-producing bacterial communities that may also harbor fungi, algae, and protozoa.
Chlorine Dioxide
Effective, rapid-acting environmental surface disinfectant or chemical sterilant.
Disinfection
The process of destroying pathogenic organisms or rendering them inert.
Iodophors
CONTACT - 10 minutes
tuberculocidal
Ortho-Phtalaldehyde (OPA)
CLASSIFICATION - Sterilant
CONTACT TIME - 12 hours
CLASSIFICATION - high level disinfectant
CONTACT TIME - 30 minutes
CLASSIFICATION - sterilant
CONTACT TIME - 3 hours
CLASSIFICATION - high level disinfectant
CONTACT TIME - 5 minutes
Precleaning
Removal of bioburden and other materials before disinfection or sterilization.
Sodium Hypochlorite/Chlorines
CONNTACT - 10 minutes
Tuberculocidal - house hold bleach
Surface Barriers
Fluid-resistant material used to cover surfaces likely to become contaminated.
Synthetic Phenol
CONTACT - 10 minutes
tuberculocidal\
REPARED DAILY.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
A federal agency charged with establishing guidelines and regulations regarding worker safety. These guidelines include storage and disposal of toxic chemicals and hazardous materials and the safety and proper use of clinical and office equipment.
Impressions
An imprint or negative likeness of an object from which a positive reproduction may be made.
Disinfection of Casts
Casts are the most difficult prosthodonitc item to disinfect without causing manged. It is preferable to disinfect the impression so that the resulting cast itself will not have to be disinfected. Casts should be set on their ends to allow drainage and sprayed with an iodophor or chlorine product, rinsed, and allowed to dry.
Microbes
Microorganism. Germs
Phenol-alcohol combinations
CONTACT - 10 min
Tuberculocidal;
Halogens (other)
CONTACT TIME - 5 min
tuberculocidal
Spores
Are not killed during disinfecting procedures. Do not confuse disinfection with sterilization.
Glutaraldehyde
CLASSIFICATION - Sterilant
CLASSIFICATION - High level
CONTACT TIME STERILANT - 6 - 10
CONTACT TIME HIGH LEVEL DISINFECTANT - 20 - 90 minutes
Hydrogen Peroxide
CLASSIFICATION - as a sterilant
CONTACT TIME - 6 hrs
CLASSIFICATION - As High - Level Disinfectant
CONTACT TIME - 30 minutes
Ortho-phthalaldehyde
as a sterilant 12 hours
as a high level disinfectant 20 minutes
- hydrogen peroxide and peractic acid
as a sterilant 3 hours
as a disinfectant 15 min
Autoclave Steam
Temperature 121C (250F), 114kPa
Pressure - 134C (273F), 216 kPa
Exposure Time Temperature - 13 - 30 minutes
Exposure Time Pressure - 3.5 - 12 minutes
Dry Heat Sterilization
DRY HEAT (OVEN TYPE)
TEMPERATURE/PRESSURE - 160C (320F)
EXPOSURE TIME - 60 - 120 minutes
TEMPERATURE - 191C (375F)
EXPOSURE TIME - 12 minutes wrapped
EXPOSURE TIME - 6 minutes unwrapped
Unsaturated chemical vapor
EXPOSURE TIME - 20 minutes
Critical - CDC Classification of Instruments and Procedures
FUNCTION - Touch bone or penetrate soft tissue.
EXAMPLES - Surgical and other instruments used to penetrate soft tissue or bone, including forceps, scalpels, bone chisels, scalers, and burs.
INTRAORAL USE - Yes
RISK OF DISEASE TRANSMISSION - Very high
PROCEDURES - Sterilizaton
Semi-critical Instruments
FUNCTIONS: Touches mucous membranes, but will not touch bone or penetrate soft tissue.
EXAMPLES: Mouth mirrors and amalgam condensers.
INTRA-ORAL USE: Moderate
RISK OF DISEASE TRANSMISSION - Moderate
PROCEDURE - Sterilization or high-level disinfection
Noncritical
FUNCTION: Contact only with the intact skin.
INTRA-ORAL USE: no
EXAMPLES - External dental x-ray head
RISK OF DISEASE TRANSMISSION - Very low or none
PROCEDURE - Basic cleaning
Rubber Dam
Best approach to minimize dental aerosols and spatter from the patient.
Biologic Monitoring
Verifies sterilization by confirming that all spore-forming microorganisms have been destroyed.
Chemical Vapor Sterilization
Instrument for sterilization by means of chemical vapors under heat and pressure
Clean Areas
Place where sterilized instruments, fresh disposable supplies, and prepared trays are stored.
Contaminated Area
Place where contaminated items are brought for per-cleaning.
Dry heat Sterilization
Instrument for sterilization by means of dry heated air.
Forced Air Sterilizer
Also called a rapid heat transfer sterilizers, it circulates hot air throughout the chamber at a high velocity. This action permits a rapid transfer of heat energy from the air to the instruments, reducing the time needed for sterilization.
Holding Solutions
Used for instruments that cannot be cleaned immediately after the procedure. It prevents the drying of blood and debris on the instruments.
Instrument Processing
Seven steps required to prepare contaminated instruments for reuse on the next patient.
1. Transport
2. Cleaning
3. Packaging
4. Sterilization
5. Storage
6. Delivery
7. Quality assurance programs
Process Indicators
Tapes, strips or tabs with heat-sensitive chemicals that change color when exposed to a certain temperature.
Process Integrators
Strips placed into packages that change colors when exposed to a combination of heat temperature and time.
Static Air Sterilizer
Similar to an oven; the heating coils are on the bottom of the chamber, and the hot air rises inside through natural convection. Heat is transferred from the static (non-moving) air to the instruments in about 1 to 2 hours.
Ultrasonic Cleaner
Instrument that loosens and removes debris by sound waves traveling through a liquid.
Hand scrubbing
Least desirable method of cleaning instruments.
Chemical Classification
High Level, Intermediate Level and low
Complex Phenols
CONTACT - 10 minutes
Tuberculocidal
Dual/synergized quaternary ammonium compounds
CONTACT - 6 to 10 minutes
Tuberculocidal
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Govenment agency deals with issues of concern to the environment or public safety that involves air and water pollution and waste management. The EPA is also responsible for the registration of chemical disinfectants.
EPA - cleared Instrument Immersion Disinfect and Dentistry
Chlorine, Complex Phenols, Dual/synergized quaternary ammonium compounds, Iodophors, Phenaol-alcohol combinations and other Halogens
Flash Sterilization
is rapid heat transfer, steam and unsaturated chemical vapor
Sterilization
Total destruction of all microooranisms. 1. Autoclave 2. Cold Sterilaization
Birex
Intermediate - make sure 5 minutes - 10 minutes left on in the treatment room. Make sure you wipe down and counter tops are wet.