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Earthquake; liquid area that surrounds Earth's center Plate; a crack in Earth's crust between two plates where movement has occurred Fault; a large section of Earth's crust and upper mantle Epicenter; the solid area at Earth's center Focus; the thickest layer of Earth Inner core; the point where earthquake waves hit Earth's surface Outer core; the cycle of movement of cool dense magma and hot less dense magma in the plastic-like layer of the mantle just below Earth'…


the shaking of Earth produced by a fast release of energy.


A large section of Earth's Crust and upper mantle.


a crack in Earth's crust between two plates where movement has occurred.


the point where earthquake waves hit Earth's surface.


the exact spot inside Earth where an earthquake starts.

Inner core

the solid ara at Earth's center.

Convection current

the cycle of movement of cool, dense magma, and hot less dense magma in the plastic-like layer of the mantle, just below Earth's crust.


the thickest layer of Earth.


a place in the world where hot, liquid magma from below the crust breaks through and flows onto the ground.

Seafloor spreading

This happens when magma oozes onto the ocean floor along mid ocean ridges and cools, forming new crust and pushing plates apart.

Continental drift

Evidence for this includes:
1. The way the continents appear to fit together like the pieces of a puzzle.
2. Similar fossils are found on different Continents.
3. There is climatological evidence.
4. Rocks on different continents are similar.


the process that gradually changes water, from a liquid to water vapor


the process that changes water from water vapor to liquid


water that falls on Earth as rain, snow, or sleet.


Water that flows over the ground surface and eventually flows into streams, oceans, or lakes.

Under Groundwater

water that soaks into the ground and collects in the small spaces between bits of soil and rocks.


process through which a river deposits sediments.

Outer Core

Liquid area that surroundsEarth's center.


wide bends in a stream.


• a measure of the saltiness of ocean water.


a mass of water moving in one direction

Ocean Pollution

Some facts about this include:
Ships pollute the oceans by dumping waste.
People pollute by littering, damaging estuaries
Properly disposing of toxic materials such as motor oil will help prevent ocean pollution.
Some results of this include:
destruction of beaches and animal habitats
killing of fish and birds
making people sick at the beach

Water Cycle

The constant movement of water between Earth's surface and the atmosphere.


pieces of rocks, plants, and animal matter, or dissolved minerals carried in the runnoff

Earthquake Facts

- caused by movement of Earth's crust
- rapid release of energy
- happen most often on fault lines
- fault, focus, epicenter and P and S waves are the key words
- sign that Earth is active and moving
- often occur in area known as Pacific Ring of Fire

Volcano Facts

- caused by sudden flow of magma from beneath Earth's crust
- sudden release of pressure
- cinder-cone, shield and composite are three types of volcanoes
- sign that Earth is active and moving
- most are in area known as Pacific Ring of Fire

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