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il World History Final Exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
bias
when a source favors one side
point of view
things that have influenced someone such as historical context and frame of reference
primary source
something which comes from the time period that the historian is studying that records or describes an event by someone who participated in or witnessed the event
secondary source
something which is produced after the time period the historian is studying
B.C./A.D.
before christ/ Anno domini
History
the study of the human past that is recorded
prehistory
pertaining to a time or time period before records
archaeologists
specially trained scientistswho work to uncover the story of prehistoric peoples, excavate and study traces of early settlements
Fact
a proven statement
opinion
what someone believes
4 theories of history
Theological Determinism, Economic Determinism, Great Man Theory, Geological Determinsim
Theological Determinism
God/Creator causes major historical events to happen. Evolution could be part of the "cosmic" plan; Divine will guides and directs human destiny
Economic Determinism
The way people make a living and distribute goods is a main influence on society
Great Man Theory
Great men/women have changed the world by thier ideas and actions
Geographical Determinism
Geography is a major factor in determining history. Physical features and natural resources shape history
fossils
evidence of early life preserved in rocks, studied by paleontologists
longitude
the lines that run north and south
latitude
the lines that run east and west
equator
the line that runs around the middle of the Earth east to west
prime meridian
the line that runs around the middle of the Earth north to south
artifacts
human-made objects like tools or jewlery, studied by archeologists
Old Stone Age
Paleolithic, 2.5 million B.C.-8000 B.C, oldest chopping tools
New Stone Age
Neolithic, 8000 B.C.-3000 B.C, polished stone, pottery, grow crops, raise animals
Agricultural Revolution
Neolithic Revolution, shift from food-gathering to food-producing culture
ziggurat
pyramid shaped monument, priests conduct rituals at top, stores grains, woven fabrics, gems
civilization wheel
Advanced technology, advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping
Sumer/Mesopotamia
beginning of civilization
city-state
a city with it's own government and ruler that functions much like a country
silt
fertile black mud, left by rivers after overflowing
polytheism
the belief in more than one god
artisans
a skilled worker who makes objects by hand
scribes
a professional record keeper
cultural diffusion
the spreading of ideas or products from one culture to another
empire
several peoples, nations or previously independent states under the control of one leader
Tigris-Euphrates
the two rivers bordering Mespotamia
dynasty
series of rulers from a single family
Hammurabi's code
the code the Babylonian empire had to follow, described punishment for each crime and had lex talionis
Lex Talionis
the idea of an eye for an eye
cuneiform
the writing of the Mesopotamians, created by scribes
surplus
extra
Nomads
people who moved from place to place foraging, or searching, for new sources of food
Huang He/Yangtze Rivers
border fertile land in China, civilization bulit on these
Nile River
flooded like clockwork and left behind fertile soil
1st need relgion fulfills
explanation for suffering, death, unknown
2nd need relgion fulfills
comfort about fear of death
3rd need relgion fulfills
something to do about things that practical remedies are unkown
4th need relgion fulfills
community with moral control, conform to ethical standards and practices
5th need relgion fulfills
acceptance of authority, social difference, one's place in social structure
6th need relgion fulfills
feeling of group solidarity; common bond, encouraged to help one another
Hinduism
relgion a way of liberating soul from illusions, disappointments, mistakes, follow main God Brahman
Brahman
world soul, multiple personalities=Brahma-the creator; Vishnu-the protector; Shiva-the destroyer(Hinduism)
Tao
the first cause of the universe, is the force and flows though all life(Taoism)
dharma
Buddhist doctrine or teachings
karma
a souls good deeds, follows to next life
reincarnation/samsara
rebirth until moksha/enlightenment is reached
Taoism
the belief that Tao is the force that flows through everything
nirvana
release from selfishness and pain
Caste system
Hindu social class; 1) Brahmins(priests) 2) warriors 3) traders and landowners 4) peasants
untouchables
lived outside the caste system, do jobs nobody wants
Tao Te Ching
written by Laozi
ascetic
one who causes pain to themselves to reach moksha
meditation
clearing ones mind
Vedas
Aryan sacred literature, 4 collections of prayers, magical spells, instructions for performing rituals
Siddhartha Guatama
Buddha founder of Buddhism
1st noble truth
life is filled w/suffering and sorrow
2nd noble truth
suffering caused by people's selfish desires
3rd noble truth
end suffering by ending desire
4th noble truth
overcome desires and attain enlightenment by following Eightfold Path(Middle Way)
Middle Way
(Eightfold Path) Right views, resolve, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration
Eightfold Path
(Middle Way) Right views, resolve, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration
enlightenment
state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe
Buddha
enlightened one
ahimsa
noninjury to living beings
Tipitaka
Buddhist sacred writings
Confucianisam
practiced filal piety, 5 relationships
Confucius
creator of Confucianism
5 realtionships
1) ruler to subject 2) father to son 3) husband to wife 4) older brother to younger brother 5) friend to friend, first 4 superior:inferior
bureaucrats
a trained civil servant who helps run the government
monsoons
seasonal winds, winter blow northeast to west(dry), summer blow east to southwest(wet)
filal piety
respect for ancestors and family
civil service exam
literacy test to work in government
ancestor whorship
believed ancestors could bring god or bad luck, asked for help from them
mandate of heaven
divine approval to rule given by gods
analects
a collection of Confucius's sayings
Lao Tzu
founder of Taosims, wrote Tao Te Ching
Judeo-Christian Ethic
right or moral behavior in Western Society