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something which comes from the time period that the historian is studying that records or describes an event by someone who participated in or witnessed the event
specially trained scientistswho work to uncover the story of prehistoric peoples, excavate and study traces of early settlements
4 theories of history
Theological Determinism, Economic Determinism, Great Man Theory, Geological Determinsim
God/Creator causes major historical events to happen. Evolution could be part of the "cosmic" plan; Divine will guides and directs human destiny
The way people make a living and distribute goods is a main influence on society
Geography is a major factor in determining history. Physical features and natural resources shape history
pyramid shaped monument, priests conduct rituals at top, stores grains, woven fabrics, gems
Advanced technology, advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping
the code the Babylonian empire had to follow, described punishment for each crime and had lex talionis
5th need relgion fulfills
acceptance of authority, social difference, one's place in social structure
relgion a way of liberating soul from illusions, disappointments, mistakes, follow main God Brahman
world soul, multiple personalities=Brahma-the creator; Vishnu-the protector; Shiva-the destroyer(Hinduism)
Hindu social class; 1) Brahmins(priests) 2) warriors 3) traders and landowners 4) peasants
Aryan sacred literature, 4 collections of prayers, magical spells, instructions for performing rituals
(Eightfold Path) Right views, resolve, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration
(Middle Way) Right views, resolve, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration
1) ruler to subject 2) father to son 3) husband to wife 4) older brother to younger brother 5) friend to friend, first 4 superior:inferior
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