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when a source favors one side

point of view

things that have influenced someone such as historical context and frame of reference

primary source

something which comes from the time period that the historian is studying that records or describes an event by someone who participated in or witnessed the event

secondary source

something which is produced after the time period the historian is studying


before christ/ Anno domini


the study of the human past that is recorded


pertaining to a time or time period before records


specially trained scientistswho work to uncover the story of prehistoric peoples, excavate and study traces of early settlements


a proven statement


what someone believes

4 theories of history

Theological Determinism, Economic Determinism, Great Man Theory, Geological Determinsim

Theological Determinism

God/Creator causes major historical events to happen. Evolution could be part of the "cosmic" plan; Divine will guides and directs human destiny

Economic Determinism

The way people make a living and distribute goods is a main influence on society

Great Man Theory

Great men/women have changed the world by thier ideas and actions

Geographical Determinism

Geography is a major factor in determining history. Physical features and natural resources shape history


evidence of early life preserved in rocks, studied by paleontologists


the lines that run north and south


the lines that run east and west


the line that runs around the middle of the Earth east to west

prime meridian

the line that runs around the middle of the Earth north to south


human-made objects like tools or jewlery, studied by archeologists

Old Stone Age

Paleolithic, 2.5 million B.C.-8000 B.C, oldest chopping tools

New Stone Age

Neolithic, 8000 B.C.-3000 B.C, polished stone, pottery, grow crops, raise animals

Agricultural Revolution

Neolithic Revolution, shift from food-gathering to food-producing culture


pyramid shaped monument, priests conduct rituals at top, stores grains, woven fabrics, gems

civilization wheel

Advanced technology, advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping


beginning of civilization


a city with it's own government and ruler that functions much like a country


fertile black mud, left by rivers after overflowing


the belief in more than one god


a skilled worker who makes objects by hand


a professional record keeper

cultural diffusion

the spreading of ideas or products from one culture to another


several peoples, nations or previously independent states under the control of one leader


the two rivers bordering Mespotamia


series of rulers from a single family

Hammurabi's code

the code the Babylonian empire had to follow, described punishment for each crime and had lex talionis

Lex Talionis

the idea of an eye for an eye


the writing of the Mesopotamians, created by scribes




people who moved from place to place foraging, or searching, for new sources of food

Huang He/Yangtze Rivers

border fertile land in China, civilization bulit on these

Nile River

flooded like clockwork and left behind fertile soil

1st need relgion fulfills

explanation for suffering, death, unknown

2nd need relgion fulfills

comfort about fear of death

3rd need relgion fulfills

something to do about things that practical remedies are unkown

4th need relgion fulfills

community with moral control, conform to ethical standards and practices

5th need relgion fulfills

acceptance of authority, social difference, one's place in social structure

6th need relgion fulfills

feeling of group solidarity; common bond, encouraged to help one another


relgion a way of liberating soul from illusions, disappointments, mistakes, follow main God Brahman


world soul, multiple personalities=Brahma-the creator; Vishnu-the protector; Shiva-the destroyer(Hinduism)


the first cause of the universe, is the force and flows though all life(Taoism)


Buddhist doctrine or teachings


a souls good deeds, follows to next life


rebirth until moksha/enlightenment is reached


the belief that Tao is the force that flows through everything


release from selfishness and pain

Caste system

Hindu social class; 1) Brahmins(priests) 2) warriors 3) traders and landowners 4) peasants


lived outside the caste system, do jobs nobody wants

Tao Te Ching

written by Laozi


one who causes pain to themselves to reach moksha


clearing ones mind


Aryan sacred literature, 4 collections of prayers, magical spells, instructions for performing rituals

Siddhartha Guatama

Buddha founder of Buddhism

1st noble truth

life is filled w/suffering and sorrow

2nd noble truth

suffering caused by people's selfish desires

3rd noble truth

end suffering by ending desire

4th noble truth

overcome desires and attain enlightenment by following Eightfold Path(Middle Way)

Middle Way

(Eightfold Path) Right views, resolve, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration

Eightfold Path

(Middle Way) Right views, resolve, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration


state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe


enlightened one


noninjury to living beings


Buddhist sacred writings


practiced filal piety, 5 relationships


creator of Confucianism

5 realtionships

1) ruler to subject 2) father to son 3) husband to wife 4) older brother to younger brother 5) friend to friend, first 4 superior:inferior


a trained civil servant who helps run the government


seasonal winds, winter blow northeast to west(dry), summer blow east to southwest(wet)

filal piety

respect for ancestors and family

civil service exam

literacy test to work in government

ancestor whorship

believed ancestors could bring god or bad luck, asked for help from them

mandate of heaven

divine approval to rule given by gods


a collection of Confucius's sayings

Lao Tzu

founder of Taosims, wrote Tao Te Ching

Judeo-Christian Ethic

right or moral behavior in Western Society

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