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Science Exam 7

STUDY
PLAY
carnivore
consumers that eat only animals
herbivore
consumers that eat only plants
omnivore
consumers that eat both plants and animals
decomposer
breaks down wastes and dead organisms and return the raw materials to the ecosystem
consumer
an organism that obtains its energy by feeding on other organisms
producer
an organism that can make its own food
food chain
a series of events in which one organism eatsh another and obtains energy
food web
consists of many overlapping food chains in an ecosystem
evolution
the change in a species over time (darwin)
plant cell vs animal cell differences
Plant cells have a cell wall, animal cells do not. Animal cells have Lysosomes, plant cells do not.
organelle
carry out specific functions within the cell
cell wall
a rigid layer of nonliving materal that surrounds the cell of plants and some other organisms
cell membrane
located just inside the cell wall and controls what substances come into and out of a cell
cytoplasm
a thick gel-like fluid between the cell membrane and the nucleus
nucleus
control center directing all the cell's activity
mitochondria
"powerhouses" of the cell - they convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its function
endoplasmic reticulum
passageways that carry protiens and other materials from one part of the cell to another
ribosomes
factories to produce protiens
Golgi Body
part of an animal cell. receive material from the endoplasmic reticulum and send them to other parts of the cell.
vacuole
part of a plant cell. Sac within the cytoplasm that stores water, food, waste products
chloroplasts
part of plant cell. capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
lysosomes
part of animal cell. contain chemicals that break down food particles and warn-out cell parts
parts of a microscope
convex lenses, mirror, slide with specimine
diffusion
the main method by which small molecules move accross cell membranes
osmosis
the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
active transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane USING CELLULAR ENERGY
passive transport
the movement of DISSOLVED material thorough the cell membrand WITHOUT using cellular energy
photosynthesis
the process by whihc a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food
autotroph
an organism that makes it own food
heterotroph
an organism that cannot make its own food
respiration
process by which cells obtain energy from glucose. during respiration cells break down simple food molecules such as sugar and release the energy they contain.
The Water Cycle
evaporation, condensation, precipatation
evaporation
the process by which molecules of liquid water absorb energy and change to a gas
condensation
the process by which a gas changes into a liquid
precipation
rain, snow, sleet or hail
carbon cycle
producers take in carbon dioxide gas during photosynthesis. they use carbon from the carbon dioxide ot make food molecules. when consumers eat producesr they take in the carbon-contaiing food molecules. when consumers break down these food molecules to obtain energy, they rlease carbon dioxide and water as waste products. when producers and consmers die, decomposers break down their remains and return carbon compounts to the soil. some decomposers also release carbon dioxide as a waste product.
oxygen cycle
producers release oxygwn as a result of photosynthesis. most organisms take in oxygen from the air or water and use it to carry out their life processes,.
sexual reproduction
the process by whihc a new organism deelops from the joining of two sex cells - a male sperm cell and a female egg cell.
asexual reproduction
process by which a single organism produces a new organism identical to itself.
genetic engineering
a process where genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another organism.
selective breeding
the process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation
punnett square
a chart that shows all the possible combination of allels that can result from a genetic cross.
phenotype
an organism's physical appearance
genotype
an organism's genetic makeup
dominant allele
one who's trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
recessive allele
hidden whenever the dominant allele is present
fats
energy-containing nutrients that are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Fats form part of the cell membrane. Fatty tisssue protects and supports your internal organs and insulates your body.
proteins
nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Needed for tissue growth and repair.
lipids
energy-rich organic compounds made o f carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Contain more energy than carbohydrates. Cells store energy in lipids for later use.
calories
the amount of energy needed to raise the temperator of one gram of water by one degree Celcius.
infectious disease
a disease that is caused by the presence of a living thing within the body.
AIDS
a disease caused by a virus that attacks the immune system.
HIV
the virus that causes AIDS. The only kind of virus known to attack the human immune system directly and destroy T cells.
cancer
abnormal cell division
stimulus
any change or signal in the environment that can make an organism react
response
what your body does in reaction to a stimulus
Gregor Mendel
his discoveries about heredity and traits form the foundation of genetics, the science of heredity.