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A persuasive appeal based on the projected character of the speaker or narrator.


Reasoning or arguing from parallel cases.


The repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or verses.


A short narrative detailing particulars of an interesting episode or event. The term most frequently refers
to an incident in the life of a person.


The use of slang or informalities in speech or writing.


The nonliteral, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning. Connotations may
involve ideas, emotions, or attitudes.


Related to style, diction refers to the writer's word choices, especially with regard to their correctness,
clearness, or effectiveness.


The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun.


The repetition of sounds, especially initial consonants in tow or more neighboring words


A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event,
book, myth, place, or work of art. Allusions can be historical, literary, religious, topical, or mythical


A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction,
such as liberty or love. It is an address to someone or something that cannot answer.


A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement.


Thecontrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant. The difference between what
appears to be and what actually is true.


A figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substitution of one for the
other, suggesting some similarity.


A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense but upon closer inspection
contains some degree of truth or validity.


It refers to the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases,
sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity. This can involve, but is not limited to repetition of a
grammatical element such as a preposition or verbal phrase.


The way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences.


The author's attitude toward his material, the audience, or both.


The identity or similarity in sound between internal vowels in neighboring words.


form of literature in which irony, sarcasm, and ridicule are employed to attack human vice and folly


an appeal based on logic or reason


a quality that arouses emotions (especially pity or sorrow); a feeling of sympathy and sorrow for the misfortunes of others; a style that has the power to evoke feelings


the act of positioning close together (or side by side)


The repetition of two or more consonant sounds in a group of words or a unit of speech or writing.

Complex Sentence

A sentence that includes one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.

Compound Sentence

A sentence with more than one subject or predicate


Visually descriptive or figurative language, esp. in a literary work


A pattern of words or sentence construction used for rhetorical effect.

Passive Voice

the voice used to indicate that the grammatical subject of the verb is the recipient (not the source) of the action denoted by the verb


the repetition of a word at the end of successive clauses or sentences.


Artful diction: the use of language in a non-literal way: also called a figure of speech

Rhetorical Triangle

A diagram that represents a rhetorical situation as the relationship among the speaker the subject and audience.


The repetition of words in an inverted order to sharpen a contrast.


A figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid


The art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing.


The aspect of someone's character that is presented to or perceived by others.


Prejudice or predisposition towards one side of a subject or issue.

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