143 terms

The different literary periods

Study Guide for Assessment
Epic poetry was important to the Greeks because?
It records the events of a lost heroic age
Who in Classical Greek drama represented the citizens and sang in elevated language?
The chorus
The "skene" refers to:
The tent from which actors emerged
Epic poetry in Classical Greek Literature is concerned with:
Gods and goddesses, heroes and heroines
Greek lyric poetry is intended to be:
Which of the following TWO themes are central to BOTH Classical Greek and Roman Literature?
Heroic deeds and Interactions of gods and goddesses
Which literary genres are considered the "most Roman"?
Erotic elegy and satire
The chivalric code was a deeply ingrained part of which medieval class?
Which of the following refers to plays based on religious themes that are usually put on by craft guilds in the Middle Ages?
The core of the warrior code of the early Middle Ages before the Norman Conquest was made up of which of the following:
Courage in battle and loyalty to the tribal leader
What is the focus in courtly love, a primary theme in Medieval Literature?
Fine manners
n the early Middle Ages, scops, or shapers, and their poetry were important because:
They recalled and performed the shared history and beliefs of the people
What is one of the central tensions in early Medieval Literature?
Paganism and Christianity
Medieval Romances included a focus on:
Legends of heroes,Encounters with the supernatural,Courtly love
The Norman Conquest of 1066 brings about:
A new language and a new system of government
The three estates of the Middles Ages consisted of:
The nobility, the clergy, the laborers
The stories of King Arthur were based on an actual king who ruled in the 6th century.
Chaucer's knight, in The Canterbury Tales, was considered "worthy" because he:
Took part in a long list of crusades
Beowulf was recited throughout the Middle Ages as a representation of England's heroic past.
What does "Renaissance" mean?
Which of the following were catalysts for the Renaissance?
Invention of the printing press, Spread of humanism, Discovery of the New World
Elizabeth I was known as . . .
The Virgin Queen
Which of the following was important to the development of Humanism?
Rediscovery of literature of the Classical period
Which of the following groups of words best describe the Humanist view of human beings?
Dignified, worldly, civilized
For Renaissance writers, "imitation" of Classical authors meant . . .
Adapting Classical literature to a Christian perspective
Which of the following were literary genres that Renaissance authors adopted from Classical models?
Which of the following did the Protestant Reformation promote?
What meter is commonly used in sonnets?
Iambic pentameter
written in iambic pentameter?
If music be the food of love, play on
What type of sonnet has the rhyme scheme ABABCDCDEFEFGG?
English sonnet
Which of the following describes the typical subject of sonnets in the Renaissance?
A man suffers for love of an ideal, unattainable woman
Some Renaissance poets grouped their sonnets into collections called . . .
Sonnet cycles
Pastoral poetry presents an idealized picture of the life of:
Which of the following best describes a major purpose of pastoral poetry?
Pastoral poetry contrasted the contentment of a humble country life with the stresses and corruption of the royal court or city.
Which of the following were features of ballads in the Renaissance?
Sensational news stories, Stories of family relationships, Printed on single sheets of paper
What poetic form do ballads most commonly use?
Quatrains with a rhyme scheme of abab
Renaissance travel writing documented which of the following?
Trade routes to Asia, Customs of native peoples, Plants and animals of the New World
What role did Christianity play in Renaissance exploration and travel writing?
Christianity provided a justification for European travel and colonization.
What aspect of Medieval mystery and morality plays did early English Renaissance drama continue to use?
Included allegorical characters
What poetic form was introduced in the early Renaissance and became the major type of poetry used in writing plays?
Blank verse
What were the major characteristics of Renaissance history plays?
Focused on a major historical figure such as a king, Inspired national pride, Praised the characteristics of the British people
Renaissance plays were performed at the royal Court as well as in public playhouses.
Which of the following best describes the audience for Renaissance drama?
The audience contained people from all classes of society.
Which of the following describes Puritan attitudes toward theater and drama in the Renaissance?
Puritans were offended by immoral behavior among the theatre audience.
Which of the following were physical features of Renaissance theatres?
A roof over the stage known as "the heavens", Several trapdoors in the stage floor, A balcony above the stage
Renaissance theatres had elaborate settings with painted backdrops and realistic representations of specific locations for each scene.
Which of the following influenced the development of Renaissance revenge tragedy?
The Roman playwright Seneca, Italian literature
Which of the following are often features of Renaissance revenge tragedy?
Ghosts, A play-within-a-play, Real or pretended madness
Which of the following are features of Renaissance romantic comedy?
Often involves multiple couples in love, Often contrasts a city or court setting with an outdoors setting, such as a forest
Which of the following are features of Renaissance citizen or city comedy?
Portray the life of ordinary people, Are set in London
Which of the following are features of Renaissance court comedy?
Uses allegory to compliment Queen Elizabeth I, Draws upon Classical stories for subject matter
Sing, goddess, the anger of Peleus' son Achilles
and its devastation, which put pains thousandfold upon the Achaians,
hurled in the multitudes to the house of Hades strong souls
of heroes, but gave their bodies to be the delicate feasting
of dogs, of all birds, and the will of Zeus was accomplished
since that time when first there stood in division of conflict
Atreus' son the lord of men and brilliant Achilles.

What god was it then set them together in bitter collision?
Zeus's son and Leto's, Apollo, who in anger at the king drove
the foul pestilence along the host and the people perished
since Atreus' son had dishonored Chryses, priest of Apollo.

What characteristics of the Classical period are represented in the following passage?
Appealing to the Muse for assistance, Interactions of gods and heroes, Epic subject matter
"The stroke of Zeus" they may call it; his hand can be traced there. As he determines, so he acts. Someone said that the gods do not trouble themselves to remember mortals who trample underfoot the grace of things not to be touched. But that man was impious!

Now it stands revealed! The penalty for reckless crime is ruin when men breathe a spirit of pride above just measure, because their mansions teem with more abundance than is good for them. But let there be such wealth as brings no distress, enough to satisfy a sensible man. For riches do not protect the man who in wantonness has kicked the mighty altar of Justice into obscurity.
-- Aeschylus, Agamemnon (from the Oresteia)

What characteristics of the Classical period are illustrated in the following passage?
The actions of a god, Commentary by a chorus
So when the king was come thither with all his baronage, and lodged as they seemed best, there was come a damosel the which was sent on message from the great lady Lile of Avelion. And when she came before King Arthur, she told from whom she came, and how she was sent on message unto him for these causes. Then she let her mantle fall that was richly furred; and then was she girt with a noble sword whereof the king had marvel, and said, Damosel, for what cause are ye girt with that sword? it beseemeth you not. Now shall I tell you, said the damosel; this sword that I am girt withal doth me great sorrow and cumbrance, for I may not be delivered of this sword but by a knight, but he must be a passing good man of his hands and of his deeds, and without villainy or treachery, and without treason. And if I may find such a knight that hath all these virtues, he may draw out this sword out of the sheath, for I have been at King Rience's it was told me there were passing good knights, and he and all his knights have assayed it and none can speed. This is a great marvel, said Arthur, if this be sooth; I will myself assay to draw out the sword, not presuming upon myself that I am the best knight, but that I will begin to draw at your sword in giving example to all the barons that they shall assay everych one after other when I have assayed it. Then Arthur took the sword by the sheath and by the girdle and pulled at it eagerly, but the sword would not out.

What characteristic of the Medieval period is represented in the following passage?
So ought a young man by good deeds deserve,
(and) by fine treasure-gifts, while in his father's keeping,
that him in old age shall again stand by,
willing companions, when war comes,
people serve him: by glorious deeds must,
amongst his people, everywhere, one prosper.
-- Anonymous, Beowulf

What characteristic of the Medieval period is represented in the following passage?
The Warrior Code
What a piece of work is a man, how noble in reason, how infinite in faculties, in form and moving how express and admirable, in action how like an angel, in apprehension how like a god! The beauty of the world!
-- William Shakespeare, Hamlet

What characteristic of the Renaissance period is represented in the following passage?
But Satan smitten with amazement fell
As when Earth's son Antaeus (to compare
Small things with greatest) in Irassa strove
With Jove's Alcides, and oft foiled still rose,
Receiving from his mother Earth new strength,
Fresh from his fall, and fiercer grapple joined,
Throttled at length in the air, expired and fell;
So after many a foil the tempter proud,
Renewing fresh assaults, amidst his pride
Fell whence he stood to see his victor fall.
-- John Milton, Paradise Regained

What characteristics of the Renaissance period are represented in the following passage?
Classical models adapted to Christian purposes, Blank verse
Which new mode of satire, characterized by joining high style with low subject matter, was developed in the 18th Century?
Which two classes engaged sentiment and sensibility as primary themes in their writing and social conduct?
Middle, gentry
What three topics were most satirized in the eighteenth century
Religion, Manners, Aristocracy
During the Restoration period, what was the most commonly used verse form?
Heroic couplet
During the Restoration period, what was the relationship between science and faith?
Science was seen as a compliment to religious faith
During the 18th century, novels were often used for didactic purposes, to teach and inform. Which of the following is true regarding the audience for novels
Novels were written with the middle class as well as the gentry in mind,Novels that explored women's issues often ended in marriage
The exploration of the world, through travel as well as through scientific investigation, affected literature in the following ways (restoration era)
Authors created imaginary worlds that they populated with strange beings, Authors took a new look at humankind's place in the universe
Which genres or subgenres of literature were prevalent during the American Colonial period?
Diaries, sermons, poetry
What were common themes in sermons of the American Colonial period?
The religious and historical importance of the colonies,The innate depravity of human beings
What did the image of "a city upon a hill" mean to the early colonists?
Like a city on a hill that can be seen for miles around, Puritan colonies were a visible example to the whole world.
Which is the best definition of the Puritan concept of predestination?
Every event in the world has been pre-determined by God.
Which of the following themes can be found in John Smith's histories of the colonies?
The abundance of resources and opportunities for colonists, Conflicts with Native Americans
Which of these is the best definition of elegy?
A poem written in memory of someone who has died
What themes are common in the Puritan elegy?
Questioning the loss of the deceased, Praise of the deceased's religious virtue, Celebrating the deceased's happiness in heaven
Which of the following influences can be seen in the literature of the later Colonial period?
Enlightenment ideas about scientific inquiry and human goodness, Increasing political conflict with the British monarchy
Which of the following was true of non-English people living in the colonies during the later part of the Colonial period?
Increasing numbers of immigrants came from countries other than England, The Native American population declined drastically, Large numbers of Africans were brought into the colonies as slaves.
Which of the following was an informal, unorganized religious movement in the American Revolutionary period that was based on math, science, and logic?
The increasing demand for human liberties stems from what aspects of the American Revolutionary period?
Humanitarianism, Environmentalism, Puritanism
Enlightenment principles figured prominently in the literature of the American Revolutionary period. These principles often used science to argue what about race in early America?
That "darker" races were inferior
The term "sentimentalism" has two senses: an extravagant expression of emotion and an optimistic view of the innate goodness of humanity. Sentimentalism affected American Revolutionary literature in which of the following ways?
Poets placed value on spontaneous and "true" expressions of emotion, Sentimental novels sought to instruct individuals
The concept of mutual sympathy, or sentiment, means that moral action derives from religious grace.
A polemic is a text that conveys an author's attitude about a controversial topic through a forceful process of argumentation. Which of the following resulted from polemics written during the American Revolutionary period?
Public support for the rebellion against Britain, The adoption of the U.S. Constitution
Which of the following is true regarding periodicals?
Poets and satirists used periodicals to stage partisan attacks on political positions
Which of the following are lasting effects of the Enlightenment?
Greater social mobility, Cultural acceptance of ideals, such as reason and equality, The assumption of an innate moral sense in all Americans
As in England in the 18th Century, the use of wit played a major role in many writings of the American Revolutionary period. Which of the following is true regarding the ways in which wit was used?
Satire was used to support the rebellion and denounce England, Witticisms were used to point out the quirks of human nature, Laughter helped people to see and accept uncomfortable truths
What characteristics of the American Revolutionary period are represented in the passage above?
Enlightenment ideals based on human reason and scientific inquiry
In pious times, ere priestcraft did begin,
Before polygamy was made a sin;
When man on many multiplied his kind,
Ere one to one was cursedly confined;
When nature prompted, and no law denied,
Promiscuous use of concubine and bride;
Then Israel's monarch, after heaven's own heart,
His vigorous warmth did variously impart
To wives and slaves; and, wide as his command,
Scattered his Maker's image through the land.
-- John Dryden, Absalom and Achitophel

What characteristics of the Restoration/Neoclassical period are represented in the passage above?
Attention to forms established by Classical literature, Satirizing religion, manners, and the aristocracy
That the reason why they are not fallen already and do not fall now is only that God's appointed time is not come. For it is said, that when that due time, or appointed time comes, their foot shall slide. Then they shall be left to fall, as they are inclined by their own weight. God will not hold them up in these slippery places any longer, but will let them go; and then, at that very instant, they shall fall into destruction; as he that stands on such slippery declining ground, on the edge of a pit, he cannot stand alone, when he is let go he immediately falls and is lost.
What characteristics of the American Colonial period are represented in the passage above?
Sermon, Puritan concepts of "innate depravity" and "predestination"
And, when I could no longer look,
I blest his Name that gave and took,
That layd my goods now in the dust:
Yea so it was, and so 'twas just.
It was his own: it was not mine;
Far be it that I should repine.
-- Anne Bradstreet, "Upon the Burning of Our House

What characteristics of the American Colonial period are represented in the passage above?
Puritan concept of destiny
The Baron now his Diamonds pours apace;
Th' embroider'd King who shows but half his Face,
And his refulgent Queen, with Pow'rs combin'd,
Of broken Troops an easie Conquest find.
Clubs, Diamonds, Hearts, in wild Disorder seen,
With Throngs promiscuous strow the level Green.
Thus when dispers'd a routed Army runs,
Of Asia's Troops, and Africk's Sable Sons,
With like Confusion different Nations fly,
In various habits and of various Dye,
The pierc'd Battalions dis-united fall,
In Heaps on Heaps; one Fate o'erwhelms them all.
-- Alexander Pope, The Rape of the Lock
Which of the following concepts best characterize the spirit of the Romantic age?
Revolution, emotionalism
Which one of the following definitions best describes the Romantic concept of the sublime?
The experience of confronting extraordinary grandeur and beauty, often in Nature, that heightens the emotions of the poet to a state of fear and wonder, spurring his or her imagination to understand and express truths beyond the rational and mundane
Which of the following best characterizes the poetry of the Romantic Period?
An emphasis on emotions and the imagination
Which of the following subjects most accurately reflect the interests of Romantic poets?
Nature and the Common Man
The Gothic novel may best be described as:
A narrative that portrays violent, mysterious, and horrific events and supernatural occurrences in settings that are dark, gloomy, and frightening
Which of the following best describes Romantic Orientalism?
A fascination with Eastern settings and artifacts, A fascination with things that are not British
Which of the following subjects most accurately reflect the interests of Romantic writers?
The Gothic, Supernatural Events, and Exotic Locales
Which of the following authors are well-known Romantic poets?
William Blake, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Percy Bysshe Shelley, John Keats, and Lord Byron
Which statement most closely describes the aims of literary Realism?
To portray accurately the lives of ordinary people in contemporary times.
Which of the following characteristics most accurately describe the Victorian sensibility?
Productivity and Morality, Sense of Duty and Propriety
Which of the following best reflect the central philosophical and social concerns that characterize the Victorian age in Britain?
Empire, Industrialism, and Utilitarianism
Which of the following were additional concerns during the Victorian age in Britain?
Social Reform, The Condition of Women
How was the ideal Victorian woman, or the "angel in the house," portrayed in Victorian literature and in culture?
She provided a domestic sanctuary, she was spiritually and morally pure, and she had a strong desire to nurture and serve others.
Which of the following descriptions best characterizes the Victorian Novel?
A work that explores the relations between individuals and society in a realistic portrayal of contemporary social life.
Which of the following best describes the "white man's burden" of British imperialism?
It was Britain's moral duty to extend civilization and order across the globe.
Which of the following issues were among those most passionately debated regarding the role of middle-class women in the 19th century?
Women's rights to obtain a higher education, expand their employment opportunities, and maintain control of their own property.
Which of the following statements most accurately describes why Industrialism was a significant topic for Victorian authors?
Examining the grim living and working conditions of the poor, authors debated whether or not the industrial age was truly advancing the nation or undermining its moral fiber.
Which of the following were the major literary genres of the Victorian period?
The Novel, Nonfiction Prose, and Poetry.
Which of the following authors are well-known Victorian writers?
ohn Ruskin, George Gissing, Elizabeth Gaskell, Henry Mayhew, and Christina Rossetti.
Which of the following cultural forces and historical events most heavily influenced 19th-century Literary Realism in America?
Westward Expansion, the Oppression of Non-white Populations, Nationalism, and Industrialism.
Which of the following statements best defines Regionalism?
A literary technique that depicts the specifics of a particular region and its inhabitants.
Which of the following statements best defines local color?
The portrayal in language of customs, speech patterns, and the sights and sounds of regional locales.
Which of the following best defines a colloquialism in literature?
The use of informal speech or slang in a literary text.
Which of the following statements best defines verisimilitude?
The attempt to portray reality truthfully, as it is genuinely experienced.
Which of the following statements best defines the concept of concrete detail?
Tangible descriptions that engage the senses and create precise visual images.
Realist writers were primarily concerned with the truthful depiction of specific objects, domestic details, and physical environments and not so interested in character development.
Which of the following topics and themes are most closely associated with American Realism rather than Victorian Realism?
Westward expansion and Race Relations.
Which of the following concepts best differentiates American Realism from Victorian Realism?
Regionalism, depicted through the use of vernacular and local color.
Which of the following are well-known American Realist authors?
Kate Chopin, Sarah Orne Jewett, Mark Twain, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and Ambrose Bierce.
Which one of the following statements best characterizes the Modernist style in literature?
The use of fragmented narrative structures, ambiguous allusions, and irony
Which of the following was the crucial defining event of the Modernist period?
World War I
What were the main principles of Freudian psychology in the Modernist period?
The power of the unconscious mind and early, formative experiences
Which of the following best defines Stream of Consciousness?
. A literary technique that attempts to replicate the discontinuous workings of the mind
What type of literary work was produced by the Imagists in the Modernist period?
Short, concentrated poems that portray, in exacting language, a revelatory image or moment
What was the Harlem Renaissance?
A movement among African American artists who depicted their experiences with racism and celebrated their cultural heritage
Why is the Surrealist movement significant in the Modernist period?
It reflects the influence of Freudian psychology
Which of the following best describes Existentialism?
The belief that we exist, and meaning is of our own creation
Which of the following topics best characterize Modernism?
Alienation, Meaninglessness
Which of the following statements best describes the Modernist style in literature?
It employs complex allusions, It is highly experimental, rejecting given literary conventions, It plays with discontinuous and fragmented narrative structures
Which of the following are well-known Modernist authors?
T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, and William Faulkner
Which of the following contributed to the formation of Postmodernism?
The threat of nuclear destruction, Decolonization, Existentialism
Which of the following best characterize the Postmodern period?
The blurring of boundaries between high and low art forms, The disruption of binary thinking
Which of the following are important genres in the Postmodern period?
The Anti-Novel, Beat Poetry
Which of the following are characteristics of much Postmodern literature?
Fragmentation and historical discontinuity, Themes of alienation and existential anxiety, Parody, irony, and pastiche
Which of the following best describes the interests of the Beat Generation?
Jazz, Native American cultural traditions, Environmentalism
Which of the following best describes Metafiction?
Literature that is highly self-conscious, often drawing attention to itself as a work of art
Which of the following best describes a work that employs Magical Realism?
A realist work that incorporates magical, fantastic, or dream-like elements
Which of the following are well-known Postmodern authors?
Gloria Anzaldúa, Gary Snyder, James Baldwin, Raymond Carver, Annie Dillard
It was on a dreary night of November that I beheld the accomplishment of my toils. With an anxiety that almost amounted to agony, I collected the instruments of life around me, that I might infuse a spark of being into the lifeless thing that lay at my feet. It was already one in the morning; the rain pattered dismally against the panes, and my candle was nearly burnt out, when, by the glimmer of the half-extinguished light, I saw the dull yellow eye of the creature open; it breathed hard, and a convulsive motion agitated its limbs.
-- Mary Shelley, Frankenstein

What themes, genres, or characteristics of the Romantic period are represented in the following passage?
Interest in the supernatural, Orientalism, The Gothic
Five years have passed; five summers, with the length
Of five long winters! and again I hear
These waters, rolling from their mountain-springs
With a soft inland murmur. —Once again
Do I behold these steep and lofty cliffs,
That on a wild secluded scene impress
Thoughts of more deep seclusion; and connect
The landscape with the quiet of the sky.
The day is come when I again repose
Here, under this dark sycamore, and view
These plots of cottage-ground, these orchard-tufts,
Which at this season, with their unripe fruits,
Are clad in one green hue, and lose themselves
'Mid groves and copses. Once again I see
These hedge-rows, hardly hedge-rows, little lines
Of sportive wood run wild: these pastoral farms,
Green to the very door; and wreaths of smoke
Sent up, in silence, from among the trees!
With some uncertain notice, as might seem
Of vagrant dwellers in the houseless woods,
Or of some Hermit's cave, where by his fire
The Hermit sits alone.
-- William Wordsworth, "Tintern Abbey"

What themes, genres, or characteristics of the Romantic period are represented in the following passage?
Lyric poetry, Reverence of Nature, Unconventional subject matter
Women are supposed to be very calm generally; but women feel just as men feel; they need exercise for their faculties and a field for their efforts as much as their brothers do; they suffer from too rigid a restraint, too absolute a stagnation, precisely as men would suffer; and it is narrow-minded in their more privileged fellow-creatures to say that they ought to confine themselves to making puddings and knitting stockings, to playing on the piano and embroidering bags. It is thoughtless to condemn them, or laugh at them, if they seek to do more or learn more than custom has pronounced necessary for their sex.
-- Charlotte Brontë, Jane Eyre

What themes, genres, or characteristics of the Realist period are represented in the following passage?
Role of Women, Domesticity
There warn't nothing to do now but to look out sharp for the town, and not pass it without seeing it. He said he'd be mighty sure to see it, because he'd be a free man the minute he seen it, but if he missed it he'd be in a slave country again and no more show for freedom. Every little while he jumps up and says:

"Dah she is?"

But it warn't. It was Jack-o'-lanterns, or lightning bugs; so he set down again, and went to watching, same as before. Jim said it made him all over trembly and feverish to be so close to freedom. Well, I can tell you it made me all over trembly and feverish, too, to hear him, because I begun to get it through my head that he was most free—and who was to blame for it? Why, me. I couldn't get that out of my conscience, no how nor no way. It got to troubling me so I couldn't rest; I couldn't stay still in one place. It hadn't ever come home to me before, what this thing was that I was doing. But now it did; and it stayed with me, and scorched me more and more. I tried to make out to myself that I warn't to blame, because I didn't run Jim off from his rightful owner; but it warn't no use, conscience up and says, every time, "But you knowed he was running for his freedom, and you could a paddled ashore and told somebody."

-- Mark Twain, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

What themes, genres, or characteristics of the Realist period are represented in the following passage?
Regionalism, Colloquial language, Race Relations
so much depends

a red wheel

glazed with rain

beside the white
-- William Carlos Williams, "The Red Wheelbarrow"

What themes, genres, or characteristics of the Modernist period are represented in the following passage?
Imagism, Experimentation
He watched her snip, shape, as one watches a bird hop, flit in the grass, without daring to move a finger. For the truth is (let her ignore it) that human beings have neither kindness, nor faith, nor charity beyond what serves to increase the pleasure of the moment. They hunt in packs. Their packs scour the desert and vanish screaming into the wilderness. They desert the fallen. They are plastered over with grimaces. There was Brewer at the office, with his waxed moustache, coral tie-pin, white slip, and pleasurable emotions — all coldness and clamminess within — his geraniums ruined in the War — his cook's nerves destroyed; or Amelia What'shername, handing round cups of tea punctually at five — a leering, sneering obscene little harpy; and the Toms and Berties in their starched shirt fronts oozing thick drops of vice. They never saw him drawing pictures of them naked at their antics in his notebook. In the street, vans roared past him; brutality blared out on placards; men were trapped in mines; women burnt alive; and once a maimed file of lunatics being exercised or displayed for the diversion of the populace (who laughed aloud), ambled and nodded and grinned past him, in the Tottenham Court Road, each half apologetically, yet triumphantly, inflicting his hopeless woe. And would HE go mad?
-- Virginia Woolf, Mrs. Dalloway
What themes, genres, or characteristics of the Modernist period are represented in the following passage?
Stream of consciousness, Effects of the War, Alienation and fragmentation
BILL is tired of Snow White now. But he cannot tell her. No, that would not be the way. Bill can't bear to be touched. That is new too. To have anyone touch him is unbearable. Not just Snow White but also Kevin, Edward, Hubert, Henry, Clem or Dan. That is a peculiar aspect of Bill, the leader. We speculate that he doesn't want to be involved in human situations any more. A withdrawal. Withdrawal is one of the four modes of dealing with anxiety. We speculate that his reluctance to be touched springs from that. Dan does not go along with the anxiety theory. Dan does not believe in anxiety. Dan speculates that Bill's reluctance to be touched is a physical manifestation of a metaphysical condition that is not anxiety. But he is the only one who speculates that. The rest of us support anxiety. Bill has let us know in subtle ways that he doesn't want to be touched. If he falls down, you are not to pick him up. If someone holds out a hand in greeting, Bill smiles. If it is time to wash the buildings, he will pick up his own bucket. Don't hand him a bucket, for in that circumstance there is a chance that your hands will touch. Bill is tired of Snow White. She must have noticed that he doesn't go to the shower room, now. We are sure she has noticed that. But Bill has not told her in so many words that he is tired of her. He has not had the heart to unfold those cruel words, we speculate. Those cruel words remain locked in his lack of heart. Snow White must assume that his absence from the shower room, in these days, is an aspect of his not liking to be touched. We are certain she has assumed that. But to what does she attribute the "not-liking" itself? We don't know.
-- Donald Barthelme, Snow White
What themes, genres, or characteristics of the Postmodern period are represented in the following passage?
Alienation, Parody, Irony, and Pastiche
You are about to begin reading Italo Calvino's new novel, If on a winter's night a traveler. Relax. Concentrate. Dispel every other thought. Let the world around you fade. Best to close the door; the TV is always on in the next room. Tell the others right away, "No, I don't want to watch TV!" Raise your voice - they won't hear you otherwise - "I'm reading! I don't want to be disturbed!" Maybe they haven't heard you, with all that racket; speak louder, yell: "I'm beginning to read Italo Calvino's new novel!" Or if you prefer, don't say anything; just hope they'll leave you alone.
-- Italo Calvino, If on a Winter's Night a Traveler
What themes, genres, or characteristics of the Postmodern period are represented in the following passage?
Metafiction, Alienation