25 terms

154 ESL Supplemental: Domain I

Domain I: Language Concepts and Language Acquisition
STUDY
PLAY
Phonetics
articulation and perception of speech sounds
Phonology
the sound system of a language
Morphology
the study of the structure and formation of words
Syntax
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
Lexicon
a language user's knowledge of words
Semantics
the study of language meaning
Suprasegmentals
stress, intonation, loudness, pitch level, juncture, speaking rate
Pragmatics
the use of language in a social context
phoneme
in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
allophone
a variant of a phoneme that does not change meaning
code switching
Shifting back and forth between languages in the same conversation.
Homophone
two words which are pronounced the same way but differ in meaning or spelling or both (e.g. bare and bear)
Aquisition Learning Hypothesis
Acquisition by subconscious process and learning through instruction are two separate processes and learners do both to acquire language.
Natural Order Hypothesis
Grammatical structures are acquired in a predictable order, irrespective of the language being learned.
Monitor Hypothesis
an internal editing device which comes into play when there is sufficient time and conscious knowledge to communicate correctly.
Input Hypothesis
Language acquisition is the result of comprehensible language input and not of language production.
Affective Filter Hypothesis
Filter that determines how much a person learns in a formal or informal language setting. Comprises affective elements that may block the acquisition process.
Silent Stage Period
Students new to acquiring language are silent until comfortable speaking. May last up to one year.
Common Underlying Proficiency of Languages (CUP)
Explains that in surface languages appear to be different. In deep structures, languages are interdependent.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
Social/conversational language which learners develop approximately within the first two years after initial exposure to new language.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
Academic language which learners develop within five to seven years without ESL methods.
Context-Embedded
Provides many cues for the learner to access information (realia, video, plays, illustrations).
Context-Reduced
Learner must rely on language to access information (lecture, reading a text, worksheets).
Cognitively Demanding
Learner must have enough background knowledge to scaffold new ideas that are academically challenging.
Cognitively Undemanding
Language required is social and not specialized.